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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Field brome is a winter annual. It produces dense, low leafy growth in the fall. Spring growth starts earlier than most other annual grasses used for cover crops. It does not have creeping stolons or rhizomes, but tillers profusely. It produces seedheads in late spring or early summer. Seed stalks are 2 to 3 feet tall. The principal characteristics that make it an outstanding cover crop are the extensive fiberous root system and the relatively short top growth. It is winter hardy in northeast and north central regions. It grows vigorously under high fertility and often smothers other grasses or weeds. It is an excellent seed producer and can maintain itself as a reseeding annual. There are 250,000 seeds per pound.

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USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Adaptation

Field brome does best on medium textured soils that are moderately well-drained to well-drained. It has done well in lowlands subject to flooding and on sloping, gravelly soils. The most suitable pH range is between 6.0 and 7.0.

Field brome can be found throughout the United States. For a current distribution map, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Website.

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USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swo llen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems solitary, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly closed, Leaf sheath hairy, hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence a contracted panicle, narrowly paniculate, branches appressed or ascending, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence lax, widely spreading, branc hes drooping, pendulous, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet 3-10 mm wide, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelets with 8-40 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes 3 nerved, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awn subapical or dorsal, Lemma awns straight or curved to base, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea about equal to lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Palea keels winged, scabrous, or ciliate, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear, Caryopsis hairy at apex.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Annual. Culms loosely tufted, 40–100 cm tall, 2–5-noded. Leaf sheaths hairy; leaf blades 10–20 cm × 3–6 mm, scattered pubescent, margins and adaxial surface scabrid; ligule 2–4 mm. Panicle lax, 15–30 × 10–20 cm; branches clustered, spreading or nodding, scabrid, each bearing 5–8 spikelets. Spikelets oblong-lanceolate, 12–22 × 3–4 mm, tinged with purple, florets 5–8, overlapping; rachilla ca. 2 mm; glumes unequal, margins membranous, apices acuminate, lower glume 4–6 mm, 3-veined, upper glume 6–8 mm, 5–7-veined; lemmas broadly elliptic or obovate, 7–9 mm, back rounded, 7-veined, glabrous, margins membranous with obtuse angle, apex minutely 2-toothed, awned from ca. 2 mm below apex; awn 7–10 mm, slender, straight; palea subequal to lemma, keels ciliate. Anthers 3–4.5 mm. Caryopsis blackish brown, 7–9 × ca. 1 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun–Aug. 2n = 14.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Avena arvensis (Linnaeus) Salisbury; Bromus arvensis Linnaeus var. phragmitoides (A. Nyárady) Borza; B. erectus Hudson var. arvensis (Linnaeus) Hudson; B. phragmitoides A. Nyárady; Forasaccus arvensis (Linnaeus) Bubani; Serrafalcus arvensis (Linnaeus) Godron.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Type Information

Type fragment for Bromus arvensis L.
Catalog Number: US 865512A
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Collector unknown
Locality: Dans les Champs et les Pres., France, Europe
  • Type fragment: Lamarck, J. B. A. 1778. Fl. Francisc. 3: 607.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Roadsides, fields, forest margins, moist places. Gansu, Jiangsu [Russia; N Africa, SW Asia, Europe; introduced in America].
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Dispersal

Establishment

The best seeding date for field brome is mid-August in the North to early September in the South. When used as a cover crop in cropland, field brome is usually seeded at the time of the last cultivation. Field brome should be seeded for orchard cover on a firm seedbed. Seeding rate is 10 pounds per acre. Rolling, cultipacking, or cultivating after broadcast seeding is essential for a uniform stand. Field brome is a heavy user of nitrogen and best growth is produced when nitrogen is available. The light, fluffy seed of field brome may cause some planting difficulties. The seed is best applied using a power driven cyclone type seeder with an agitator. A cultipacker seeder or a grain drill with a positive type feed may be used for planting.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Associations

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Cerodontha incisa may be found in leaf-mine of Bromus arvensis

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Bromus arvensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bromus arvensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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Management

Control

Please contact your local agricultural extension specialist or county weed specialist to learn what works best in your area and how to use it safely. Always read label and safety instructions for each control method. Trade names and control measures appear in this document only to provide specific information. USDA, NRCS does not guarantee or warranty the products and control methods named, and other products may be equally effective.

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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

'Svalof's Sleipner' is the only released variety of field bromegrass. Most seed produced in this country can be traced to this variety.

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Nitrogen application is not essential for cover crop use, but supplemental nitrogen may be added to increase growth and to speed up breakdown of the heavy sod after plowing. Without adequate nitrogen the succeeding crop, particularly vegetables, may show nitrogen deficiency. This grass can be heavily grazed in late fall and again in the spring for 6 to 8 weeks.

When managed as a reseeding annual in orchards, the stand should be disked in the spring before seedheads are produced, leaving only 10 percent of the stand to produce seed. This will provide ample seed to re-establish the stand the following fall. After seed maturity, the entire stand can be disked under.

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Weediness

This plant may become weedy or invasive in some regions or habitats and may displace desirable vegetation if not properly managed. Please consult with your local NRCS Field Office, Cooperative Extension Service office, or state natural resource or agriculture department regarding its status and use. Weed information is also available from the PLANTS Web site at plants.usda.gov.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Field brome is used primarily as a winter cover crop on vegetable lands and in orchards in the Northeast. Due to its heavy root growth and low, dense top growth, it gives good protection against wind and water erosion. The heavy root growth makes it a useful green manure crop. When used as a cover plant, it provides good pasturage for Canada geese, especially in the spring.

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Risks

Caution

Caution: This plant may become invasive. Please consult specialists in your area.
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Wikipedia

Bromus pubescens

Bromus pubescens, common name hairy woodland brome or hairy wood chess, is a grass species found across much of the eastern and central United States, as well as in Arizona, Québec and Ontario. [2][3]


Bromus pubescens is a perennial herb up to 1.2 m (4 feet) tall. Leaf blades are up to 30 cm (12 inches) long and 15 mm (0.6 inches) across. Spikelets are drooping, up to 3 cm (1.2 inches) long, lacking awns on the glumes.[4][5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tropicos
  2. ^ Prairie Moon Nursery
  3. ^ Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Catalog of New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
  4. ^ Illinois Wildlowers
  5. ^ New England Wildflower Society
  6. ^ Pavlick, L. E. 1995. Bromus of North America 1–160. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria.
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Bromus arvensis

Bromus arvensis, the field brome or Schrader's brome, is a grass native to Europe and Asia.

Description[edit]

It is an annual bunchgrass, growing to 50–110 cm tall with slender leaves 10–30 cm long and 0.5–1 cm broad.

The flower spikelets are erect at first, later spreading to slightly drooping, 10–25 mm long; flowering is in mid summer.


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