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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Habit: Grass
  • Mathew, K. M. ""The flora of Palani Hills."" Rapinat Herbarium, Tiruchirapalli, Part I-III.
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Description

Annual, to 60 cm. Inflorescence of usually 3-8 large spikelets, secund, drooping at the apex. Spikelets large, 10-25 mm. Glumes hyaline, shining, broadly ovate.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Roadside drainage & Habitations. Native of the Mediterranean; introduced in higher altitudes of India as ornamental.
  • Mathew, K. M. ""The flora of Palani Hills."" Rapinat Herbarium, Tiruchirapalli, Part I-III.
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region.

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Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Global Distribution

Mediterranean region, but escaping from cultivation and now widely naturalized in temperate regions.

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Worldwide distribution

Mediterranean region
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution: Pakistan (Punjab, introduced); Mediterranean region; naturalised in many warm temperate countries.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly basal, below middle of stem, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf s heath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence simple spikes, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence lax, widely spreading, branches drooping, pendulous, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet 3-10 mm wide, Spikelets with 8-40 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes 8-15 nerved, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma 8-15 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma mucronate, very shortly beaked or awned, less than 1-2 mm, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma saccate or swollen, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea shorter than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Annual; culms 10-60 cm high, loosely tufted or solitary, erect or geniculately ascending, slender. Leaf-blades 5-20 cm long, 3-8 mm wide, flat, minutely rough on the margins; ligule 2-5 mm long. Panicle 3-10 cm long, loose, nodding, bearing up to 12 spikelets on capillary pedicels. Spikelets 7-20-flowered, ovate to oblong, plump, 14-25 mm long and 8-15 mm wide, glabrous or minutely hairy, pale green, silvery or suffused with reddish-brown or purple; lemma 6-8 mm long, very broad, rounded on the back, obtuse.
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Description

Annual. Culms solitary or loosely tufted, erect or geniculate at base, 20–60 cm tall. Leaf sheaths smooth, glabrous; leaf blades thin, 4–20 cm × 3–8 mm, margins scabrid, otherwise smooth, apex acute; ligule 2–5 mm, obtuse. Panicle loose, nodding, 7–10 cm, sparingly branched with few pendant spikelets; branches inserted singly, scaberulous, sometimes with only 1 spikelet; pedicels hairlike, shorter or longer than spikelet, drooping. Spikelets ovate, ca. 1.2 × 1 cm, tinged reddish brown, florets 7–20; lower glume 5–6 mm, 5-veined, upper glume 6–7 mm, 7–9-veined, margins purple or tawny, apex broadly rounded; lemmas very broadly ovate, wider than long, lowest 7–8 mm, 7–9-veined, glabrous or appressed-pubescent; palea obovate, 1/2–2/3 length of lemma, back glabrous, keels pubescent. Anthers ca. 2 mm. 2n = 14.
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Type Information

Type fragment for Briza rubra Lam.
Catalog Number: US 865547A
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. Sonnerat
Locality: Punjab, India / Pakistan, Asia-Tropical
  • Type fragment: Lamarck, J. B. A. 1791. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 187.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Introduced decorative species.

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Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Habitat & Distribution

Gardens. Frequently cultivated in China [N Africa, S Europe].
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Population Biology

Frequency

Local
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. & Fr. Per.: May-August.
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Briza maxima

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Uses: Ornamental
  • Mathew, K. M. ""The flora of Palani Hills."" Rapinat Herbarium, Tiruchirapalli, Part I-III.
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Wikipedia

Briza maxima

Briza maxima is a species of the grass genus Briza. It is native to Northern Africa, the Azores, Western Asia, and Southern Europe and is cultivated or naturalised in the British Isles, Australasia, the western United States, Central and South America, and Hawaii.[1]

This species has a large number of common names, including big quaking grass, great quaking grass, large quaking grass, blowfly grass, rattlesnake grass, shelly grass, and shell grass.[2][3][1]

It grows to a height of 60 cm.

The seeds and leaves are edible.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Briza maxima". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area. Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  2. ^ Joondalup Coastal Foreshore Natural Areas Management Plan Retrieved 2007-10-15.
  3. ^ Briza maxima. National Weeds Strategy. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
  4. ^ "Briza maxima". Survival and Self Sufficiency. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 


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Notes

Comments

An extremely attractive grass widely cultivated as an ornamental (Large Quaking-grass) and frequently escaping.
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Comments

This is a very attractive ornamental grass with a panicle of relatively few large spikelets. It is widely cultivated and an established introduction in many warm-temperate countries.
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