Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
DescriptionSmall to large sized trapdoor spiders. Cephalothorax longer than wide, sloping posteriorly, lacking pubescence in most species (Fig. 2). Posterior third of carapace very lightly sclerotized (Figs 2, 23, 24). Thoracic groove intermediate to wide, procurved (Fig. 2) and deep. Eyes not on a tubercle (Fig. 3). AME, PME subequal diameter. Posterior eye row slightly recurved, anterior eye row slightly porcurved (Fig. 2). Caput moderately high (Fig. 3). Carapace of ethanol preserved specimens appears most often reddish-brown, sometimes lighter. The coloration of living spiders tends to be a darker brown, however there is considerable variation in the intensity of coloration. Male coloration in most specimens is dark reddish-brown. Abdominal coloration light to dark brown, sometimes with dark mid dorsal blotch. Sternum wider posteriorly, tapering anteriorly (Fig. 4). Posterior sigilla large and positioned mid-posteriorly nearly contiguous. Anterior margin of sigilla lacks rounded margin. Palpal endites longer than wide with numerous cuspules (Fig. 4). Labium wider than long, with numerous cuspules (Fig. 4). Chelicerae dark brown. Rastellum consists of numerous spines borne on a distinctive mound. Fangs of intermediate length and thickness. Cheliceral promargin with row of very large teeth; retromargin row comprises distinct row of large teeth interspersed with denticles. Apical PLS article short, digitiform. Spinnerets mostly with pumpkiniform spigots with several articulated spigots interspersed on apical and median articles of PLS and the PMS (Bond and Opell 2002, fig. 3E). Two to three large, articulated spigots on apical most aspect of the PLS. PMS article robust. See Bond and Opell (2002) for more detailed descriptions of spigot types. Anterior leg articles slender relative to posterior. Tarsi short and robust (Figs 5–6). Female scopulae long, dense, asymmetrical, extending full length of tarsus, metatarsus and half length of tibia on anterior legs; posterior legs lack distinct scopulae. Male tarsi I and II with short sparse scopulae that are restricted to the ventral surface. Basal palpal tooth and STC I – IV basal tooth elongate and bifid. STC IV with 5 or more teeth. Female anterior legs with very few ventral spines (Fig. 5). Prolateral surface of female patella III and IV covered in numerous thick short spines (Fig. 6). Preening comb on metatarsus IV absent; metatarsus, tarsus IV with ventral spines (Fig. 7). Tarsal trichobothria arranged in a wide band with interspersed setae. Spermathecae generally comprise a simple unbranched bulb that lacks an elongate base. Male mating clasper morphology is distinctive. Tibia legs I & II swollen mid-ventrally in most species, bearing 1-2 large spines; prolateral aspect with a small to large patch of smaller, thickened, short spines. Metatarsus of leg I lacks excavation and spur. Palpal bulb simple, with spherical base, planar distally near origin of embolus. Palpal cymbium lacks dorsal spines (Fig. 11).