Regularity: Regularly occurring
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Global Range: Alaska to central California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Comments: Moist open woods and alpine meadows.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300
Comments: Common to occasional in appropriate habitat. Described as "infrequent in and east of the Coast-Cascade Mountain [in British Columbia], rare northwards" (Douglas et al. 2001). An estimate of occurrences in eastern Oregon is approximately 200 (pers. comm. J. Kagan 2001), and another 100 in western Oregon (pers. comm. Vrilakas 2002). From the ISMS data set, it is estimated to have 60 occurrences in northern California and 50 in western Washington (ISMS 2002). The state of California does not keep track of occurrences.
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Cypripedium montanum
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cypripedium montanum
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked
Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Occasional in western North America, with thousands of occurrences, but many of those with few plants. Occurs in a wide variety of habitats, from full sun on eastern mountain slopes to full shade in moist wooded valleys (Luer 1975). Threatened by habitat loss or alteration. The main concern for this species is that present-day botanists are observing and hearing anecdotal accounts of population loss. Although populations are known to be declining significantly, there are still abundant enough numbers of plants and populations.
Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.
Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Comments: This species is reportedly declining slowly due to fire suppression and perhaps also due to harvesting of wildplants (pers. comm. J. Kagan, December 2002). Seevers and Lang (1998) mention examples of severe damage to populations on logged areas in Oregon and California. In Alberta, where C. montanum is only found in the southwestern part of the province, estimated overall population decline is 20 percent over the past 10 years (Ksenija Vujnovic, pers. comm.,2002).
Degree of Threat: High - medium
Comments: Habitat loss, such as logging, fire suppression, and harvesting of wild plants threaten this species (pers. comm. J. Kagan, December 2001). Grazing has also been cited as a threat (Fertig 2000, Ksenija Vujnovic, pers. comm., 2002). Other threats include park and campground maintenance, road construction, and herbicide spraying (Washington Natural Heritage Program 1981). In addition, disturbances caused by the collection of other species such as mushrooms or medicinal plants may damage habitat (Seevers and Lang 1998). Cypripedium montanum is advertised by several distributors as available laboratory-propagated. Fire supression may be the largest threat to the many popluations located in developed/developing areas.
Cypripedium montanum is a member of the orchid genus Cypripedium. It is commonly known as the Large Lady's Slipper, Mountain Lady's Slipper, White Lady's Slipper as well as Moccasin Flower. This latter is also the common name of Cypripedium acaule.
Cypripedium montanum, sometimes called "Mountain Lady's Slipper," grows to be up to 70 cm tall. The stem has alternating, plicate leaves. Atop the stem sits one to three large flowers. The sepals and petals tend to be maroon-brown while the pouch is white. This species is a close ally of Cypripedium parviflorum, so they appear to be very similar with the main difference being pouch color.
Cypripedium montanum can be found in the northwestern United States and western Canada. It is reported from California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia and Alaska. It is usually found at high elevation in open woods and subalpine slopes.
- NatureServe (2006), "Cypripedium montanum", NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life, Version 6.1., Arlington, Virginia
- US Department of Agriculture plants profile
- Biota of North America Program, county distribution map
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