Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Cypripedium montanum ranges from southern Alaska, British Columbia, and western Alberta south to Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and northern California. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 2,633,500 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 700 km².

This species is no longer extant on Vancouver Island (Clark 1976), nor is it known from the Olympic Peninsula. It is possibly not present west of the Cascade crest in Washington, except along the Columbia River Gorge (Hitchcock et al. 1969). The species can be found up to 1,600 m altitude.


Sources: Cribb 1997, Dorn 2001, Frosch and Cribb 2012, Kartesz 1994, Luer 1975.

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Alaska to central California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.

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Alta., B.C.; Alaska, Calif., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash., Wyo.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants erect, 25–71 cm. Leaves 4–6, inserted toward base or scattered along stem, alternate, erect, ascending, or spreading; blade suborbiculate or broadly ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 3.3–17 × 2.5–9.5 cm. Flowers 1–3; sepals greenish, suffused, often heavily, with reddish brown or madder, or rarely clear green; dorsal sepal lance-acuminate to elliptic-lance-acuminate, 33–60 × 8–16 mm; lateral sepals connate; synsepal 30–60 × 6–18 mm; petals spreading-deflexed, same color as sepals, spirally twisted, linear to linear-lanceolate, 36–77 × 3–5 mm; lip white, rarely suffused with magenta, obovoid or oblance-ovoid to oblance-fusiform, 19–33 mm; orifice basal, 13–22 mm; staminode lanceoloid to broadly ovoid or ellipsoid-ovoid.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

Cypripedium montanum occurs in a variety of habitats from open woods, subalpine slopes, mixed evergreen or coniferous forests, scrub oak, alpine meadows, bogs and swamps. The species is often associated with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in combination with the following: Madrone (Arbutus menziesii), Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana), or Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa). Other associates include Grand Fir (Abies grandis), Pacific Yew (Taxus brevifolia), Incense Cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), and California Black Oak (Quercus kelloggii).

Cypripedium montanum prefers moist to dry sandy soil, rich in humus, strongly acidic and aerated. The species requires a mycorrhizal fungal associate and grows in full sun on eastern mountain slopes to full shade in moist wooded valleys, it flowers from April to July (Coleman 1989, Cribb 1997, Doherty 1997, Dorn 2001, Frosch and Cribb 2012, Kartesz 1994, Luer 1975).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Comments: Moist open woods and alpine meadows.

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Mesic to dry (rarely wet) coniferous, deciduous, and broadleaf evergreen forests, openings, and thickets, around shrubs on open slopes; 0--2400m.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: Common to occasional in appropriate habitat. Described as "infrequent in and east of the Coast-Cascade Mountain [in British Columbia], rare northwards" (Douglas et al. 2001). An estimate of occurrences in eastern Oregon is approximately 200 (pers. comm. J. Kagan 2001), and another 100 in western Oregon (pers. comm. Vrilakas 2002). From the ISMS data set, it is estimated to have 60 occurrences in northern California and 50 in western Washington (ISMS 2002). The state of California does not keep track of occurrences.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Feb--Sep.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cypripedium montanum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cypripedium montanum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Rankou, H.

Reviewer/s
Fay, M.

Contributor/s

Justification

Cypripedium montanum is common to occasional in suitable habitat and rare in other parts of its range. The trend of the population is decreasing slowly and the species is extinct from Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula due to numerous threats. The total number of occurrences is more than 300 but many of these comprise only a few plants. The area of occupancy of C. montanum is about 700 km2 and the population of the species and the habitats are under numerous threats especially habitat loss and disturbance, urbanization, logging, trampling, deforestation, timber harvest, herbicide application, lost of pollinators, infrastructure development, creation of recreation sites, and collection from the wild for horticultural or medicinal purposes which cause a continuing decline of the species in all of the ten estimated locations and the destruction of some subpopulations. Therefore, C. montanum is assessed as Vulnerable (VU). The species would probably qualify as Vulnerable or in an even more threatened category under criteria A or C, but detailed information on population declines and generation length are lacking. Information on these aspects should be sought so that the species can be properly assessed.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Occasional in western North America, with thousands of occurrences, but many of those with few plants. Occurs in a wide variety of habitats, from full sun on eastern mountain slopes to full shade in moist wooded valleys (Luer 1975). Threatened by habitat loss or alteration. The main concern for this species is that present-day botanists are observing and hearing anecdotal accounts of population loss. Although populations are known to be declining significantly, there are still abundant enough numbers of plants and populations.

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.

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Population

Population

Cypripedium montanum is common to occasional in suitable habitat. The species is described as rare in the Coast-Cascade Mountain and the total number of occurrences is more than 300 but many of these with few plants.

As far as population size is concerned: Eastern Oregon has an estimation of approximately 200 occurrences, and another 100 in Western Oregon, an estimated 60 occurrences in northern California and 50 in western Washington. In Wyoming, the population sizes are variable, from 50 to 500 individuals. The overall trend of the population is declining slowly due to many threats, the short-term trend decline is estimated to be 10-30% reduction and long term decline is estimated to be 50-70% reduction. (Coleman 1989, Douglas et al. 2001, Fertig 2000).


Population Trend
Decreasing
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Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 50-70%

Comments: This species is reportedly declining slowly due to fire suppression and perhaps also due to harvesting of wildplants (pers. comm. J. Kagan, December 2002). Seevers and Lang (1998) mention examples of severe damage to populations on logged areas in Oregon and California. In Alberta, where C. montanum is only found in the southwestern part of the province, estimated overall population decline is 20 percent over the past 10 years (Ksenija Vujnovic, pers. comm.,2002).

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Threats

Major Threats

Cypripedium montanum is under numerous threats including habitat loss and disturbance in parts of its range due to urbanization, continued real estate development, logging, deforestation, timber harvest, grazing, herbicide and pesticide intensification, lost of pollinators, road and trail construction, creation of recreation sites, harvesting forest products that disturbs litter and soil (herbal medicine, mushroom collecting), mycorrhizal fungus disturbance and fire suppression. In addition, the decrease in pollinator abundance and collection from the wild for horticultural or medicinal purposes continue to be major threats. (Chen et al. 1995, Fertig 2000, Given 1994, Harrod et al. 1997, Olsen et al. 1995, Seevers and Lang 1998, Washington Natural Heritage Program 1981).



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Degree of Threat: High - medium

Comments: Habitat loss, such as logging, fire suppression, and harvesting of wild plants threaten this species (pers. comm. J. Kagan, December 2001). Grazing has also been cited as a threat (Fertig 2000, Ksenija Vujnovic, pers. comm., 2002). Other threats include park and campground maintenance, road construction, and herbicide spraying (Washington Natural Heritage Program 1981). In addition, disturbances caused by the collection of other species such as mushrooms or medicinal plants may damage habitat (Seevers and Lang 1998). Cypripedium montanum is advertised by several distributors as available laboratory-propagated. Fire supression may be the largest threat to the many popluations located in developed/developing areas.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

All orchid species are included under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Cypripedium montanum is a Survey and Manage species for the United States Forest Service (USFS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Oregon, it is a California Native Plant Society and Oregon Natural Heritage Program category 4 species and it is considered a Monitor species by the Washington Natural Heritage Program.

The following actions are recommended to protect Cypripedium montanum:

- Protection of the habitat, especially the woodland from urbanisation, deforestation, trampling, logging and fires suppression.

- Fencing vulnerable sites to protect the species from collection for horticultural or medicinal purposes or by gardens lovers.

- Avoid direct mechanical damage to plants, or changes in soil moisture and temperature, or the nature of the duff layer.

- Maintain and restore ecological conditions at known sites such as hydrologic, temperature, and light regimes.

- Management and maintenance of canopy coverage at 60 percent or more to prevent increased sunlight to the site.

- Secure known sites from prescribed burns.

- Manage population sites to include an area large enough to maintain current habitat and associated microclimate, primarily temperature and moisture.

- Ensure that indiscriminate insecticide and herbicide spraying does not affect the populations of pollinators.

- Mitigate disturbance to known sites to maintain current microclimate conditions of the habitat area until basic habitat and life history requirements are understood.

- Raise public awareness.

- Protection of the living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species not to be picked or dug up.

- Ex situ conservation: artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.

- Monitoring and surveillance of the existing populations and sites.

- Estimate the population size and study their dynamics.

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Biological Research Needs: General ecological requirements of Cypripedium montanum, such as dependence upon fire and mycorrhizal symbionts remain unknown (Seevers and Lang 1998).

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Wikipedia

Cypripedium montanum

Cypripedium montanum is a member of the orchid genus Cypripedium. It is commonly known as the Large Lady's Slipper, Mountain Lady's Slipper, White Lady's Slipper as well as Moccasin Flower. This latter is also the common name of Cypripedium acaule.

Description[edit]

Cypripedium montanum, sometimes called "Mountain Lady's Slipper," grows to be up to 70 cm tall. The stem has alternating, plicate leaves. Atop the stem sits one to three large flowers. The sepals and petals tend to be maroon-brown while the pouch is white. This species is a close ally of Cypripedium parviflorum, so they appear to be very similar with the main difference being pouch color.

Range[edit]

Cypripedium montanum can be found in the northwestern United States and western Canada. It is reported from California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia and Alaska.[2][3] It is usually found at high elevation in open woods and subalpine slopes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ NatureServe (2006), "Cypripedium montanum", NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life, Version 6.1., Arlington, Virginia 
  2. ^ US Department of Agriculture plants profile
  3. ^ Biota of North America Program, county distribution map
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Notes

Comments

Plants of Cypripedium montanum grown in exposed, relatively sunny situations have the ascending leaves inserted along the basal portion of the stem and the flowers displayed well above the leaves. In shadier, especially sheltered sites, the spreading leaves may be more evenly scattered along the stem. In this species the apical margin of the orifice of the lip is usually acute, in common with C. candidum, and in contrast to the usually obtuse margin in C. parviflorum; this difference can aid determination of discolored herbarium specimens. Hybrids of C. montanum and C. parviflorum have been designated C. × columbianum Sheviak. See 11. C. parviflorum for a general discussion of hybridization and variation within and between related species.
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