Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Cypripedium parviflorum is a taxonomically complex species, however it is treated here as a single species which is widespread across North America. The range of the species extends from Alaska in the west to Nova Scotia in the east, south to Nebraska and Georgia. The species occurs from British Columbia to Washington and Oregon, east of the Cascade crests, to Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New York, and to much of eastern Canada and the U.S. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 11,849,400 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 2,670 km². The species can be found up to 2,900 m altitude.


Sources: Arditti et al. 1979; Coleman 2002; Cribb 1997; Dorn 2001; Frosch and Cribb 2012; Kartesz 1994; Lesica 1986; Luer 1975; Meads et al. 2000; Mergen 2006, Sheviak 1974, 2002; Weber and Wittmann 2012; Welsh 1974.

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Alaska to Nova Scotia, south to Nebraska and Georgia. This is a widespread species complex whose taxonomy is being revised. The global range of the subspecies found in Alaska cannot now be determined with confidence from the literature.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants erect, 70–700 cm. Flowers: sepals greenish or yellowish (often obscured by darker markings); dorsal sepal suborbiculate or ovate to ovate-lance-acuminate, 19–80 × 7–40 mm; lateral sepals connate; synsepal 11–80 × 5–34 mm; petals horizontal to strongly descending, same color as sepals, commonly spirally twisted or undulate, sometimes flat, linear-lanceolate to lance-ovate or oblong, 24–97 × 3–12 mm; lip rather pale to deep yellow, very rarely white, rarely with reddish spots or suffusion on adaxial external surface, 15–54 mm; orifice basal; staminode cordiform-ovoid, deltoid, lance-ovoid, or ovoid-oblong.
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Diagnostic Description

Petals conspicuously twisted, pouch small, 2-2.5 cm, sepals and petals deep reddish brown.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

Cypripedium parviflorum occurs in a variety of habitats from mountain meadows, mesic places in Ponderosa Pine, mixed conifer, aspen forest communities, non-sphagnum bogs, marshes, wet prairies, rocky wooded hillsides and mixed woodlands commonly associated with oak, ash, and hazelnut woodlands. The species grows on moderately moist to dry substrates, confined to predominantly calcareous stony soils, rich in humus, with basic, neutral, to acidic pH soil. The species prefers shaded, cool, north-facing and well-drained slopes. Flowering takes place from late May to late June.


Sources: Arditti et al. 1979; Coleman 2002; Cribb 1997; Dorn 2001; Frosch and Cribb 2012; Kartesz 1994; Lesica 1986; Luer 1975; Meads et al. 2000; Mergen 2006, Sheviak 1974, 2002; Weber and Wittmann 2012; Welsh 1974.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Comments: Rich, humus and decaying leaf litter in wooded areas, often on rocky wooded hillsides on north or east facing slopes, also wooded loess river bluffs. Moist creeksides or swales in spruce zones, soils sandy loams to loams.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: This is a widespread species complex whose taxonomy is being revised. The global occurrence of the subspecies found in Alaska cannot now be determined with confidence from the literature.

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General Ecology

Constant moisture very important during germination and early development.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL, Long-lived, DECIDUOUS

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cypripedium parviflorum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cypripedium parviflorum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Rankou, H.

Reviewer/s
Fay, M. & Sharma, J.

Contributor/s

Justification

Cypripedium parviflorum is confined to North America with a large distribution area and abundant populations. There are currently between 81 and about 300 occurrences and a population trend decrease is suspected due to numerous threats. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of the species are greater than thresholds for any threatened categories and although there are threats to the species and its habitats these are unlikely to cause the population to decline quickly in the near future if we apply the conservation measures suggested, raise public awareness and keep the existing conservations measures in place. C. parviflorum is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread in North America, apparently with thousands of occurrences.

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Population

Population

There are currently between 81 and less than 300 total occurrences of Cypripedium parviflorum. Most of the occurrences are small and each one contains one suspected subpopulation. Some occurrences may have been extirpated.

Of the 46 occurrences in Colorado, 32 records fail to list land ownership; two are listed on private land; one is on land owned by Jefferson County; 11 are known from National Forest System lands, six are on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest, three are on the Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest, and two are on the San Juan National Forest (Colorado Natural Heritage Program 2003).

There are 19 known occurrences in Kansas, 11 in Nebraska and 133 individual occurrences are listed in South Dakota; most of these are from the eastern part of each state. (Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory 2001, Nebraska Natural Heritage Program 2001).

As far as population trend is concerned, from historical accounts it is difficult to ascertain due to the lack of quantitative data but a decline can be suspected due to many threats and some occurrences have been destroyed such as the one near Woodland Park, Colorado.


Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats

Cypripedium parviflorum is under numerous anthropogenic threats especially plant collecting for research, personal garden use, illegal sale for horticultural or medicinal use, and botanical collections or voucher specimens; timber harvest; infrastructure development and road construction; grazing by livestock or wildlife, habitat loss due to some management activities such as recreation activities by direct effect (e.g., destruction of plants) and indirect effect (e.g., alteration of habitat); weed control as the amount of light and competition from other plants appear to have a negative influence in the number of species; fire suppression and mining which generally involves large-scale land disturbance to soil surface conditions and nearby plant communities. In addition, to the human interferences, environmental risks to this species include drought, flooding, climate change and wildfires are also considered major threats.


Sources: Arditti et al. 1979; Coleman 2002; Cribb 1997; Dorn 2001; Frosch and Cribb 2012; Kartesz 1994; Lesica 1986; Luer 1975; Meads et al. 2000; Mergen 2006, Sheviak 1974, 2002; Weber and Wittmann 2012; Welsh 1974.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

All orchid species are included under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Cypripedium parviflorum is listed by the U.S. Federal Government in Arizona, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Washington.

The following actions are recommended to protect Cypripedium parviflorum:

- Protection of the habitat, especially woodland from timber harvesting, infrastructure development and grazing.

- Fencing vulnerable sites to protect the species from collection.

- Prescribed fires can benefit Cypripedium parviflorum to some threshold but can pose negative impacts as the point at which this threshold is reached or exceeded is unknown.

- Management of habitat to reduce competition for resources (i.e., water, nutrients, light) may improve both the habitat and health of Cypripedium parviflorum occurrences.

- Further research on the life cycle and ecology of C. parviflorum will increase our knowledge about this species and help managers to develop effective approaches to its conservation.

- Management of protected areas and plant salvage could be considered as beneficial to Cypripedium parviflorum.

- Land protection and habitat diffuse management can be implemented to conserve habitat near or between occurrences.

- Increasing natural recruitment at a site by population reinforcement is a management method to enhance small natural populations.

- Successional management which involves the direct manipulation of seral stages within the existing community to produce the optimal habitat

- Control and management of sedative production from the roots.

- Raise public awareness.

- Protection of the living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species not to be picked or dug up.

- Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.

- Monitoring and surveillance of the existing populations and sites.

- Estimate population size and study population dynamics.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

Comments: Rootstock yielded the drug cypridpedium, which was used as an official nerve stimulant.

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Wikipedia

Cypripedium parviflorum

Cypripedium parviflorum, commonly known as yellow lady's slipper, mocassin flower,[2] or hairy yellow ladyslipper[3] is a lady's slipper orchid found in North America.[1]

Varieties[edit]

Four varieties are widely recognized:[1]

  • Cypripedium parviflorum var. exiliens Sheviak - Alaska
  • Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin (Farwell) Sheviak - widely distributed over much of Canada and the northern United States
  • Cypripedium parviflorum var. parviflorum - southern part of the species range, from eastern Nebraska and eastern Oklahoma east to Virginia and New Hampshire
  • Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens (Willdenow) O. W. Knight - very widespread across much of United States, Canada, and St. Pierre & Miquelon - treated by many authors as a distinct species, Cypripedium pubescens
Greater yellow lady's-slipper, var. pubescens Port au Choix, Newfoundland and Labrador

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Voitk, A & M. (2006) Orchids on the Rock: The Orchids of Newfoundland, Rocky Harbour, NL: Gros Morne Co-operating Association.
  3. ^ Cypripedium parviflorum, Digital Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador
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Notes

Comments

Cypripedium parviflorum is extremely variable, reflecting individual phenotypic plasticity, infraspecific differentiation, and hybridization with related species. In particular, var. pubescens is difficult to delimit. In exposed situations, especially in calcareous soils, plants are low-growing with ascending, often narrow leaves and rather small flowers; in exposed boreal and arctic sites, plants and flowers may be very small with scarcely spiraled to flat petals. Such plants from Newfoundland were originally described as C. parviflorum var. planipetalum. When transplanted to less severe conditions, those plants often develop into larger plants with larger flowers of more common form; indeed, the holotype sheet of var. planipetalum includes a range in habit and floral morphology and includes a plant rather typical of boreal var. pubescens. The lips of smaller flowers often are markedly compressed laterally, with parallel sides, but when larger flowers are produced by the same plant, the proportions of the lip often change, the lip then being very broad below and tapering toward the adaxial surface (trapezoidal in cross section) or sometimes dorsiventrally compressed and broader than high.  

 The southeastern var. parviflorum differs from var. pubescens primarily in flower size and color, and the two might be merely forms. Most works dealing with Cypripedium parviflorum have treated the primarily boreal var. makasin as var. parviflorum, either including all small-lipped plants within var. parviflorum, or in some cases restricting the name to the northern variety and excluding the southeastern plants described by Salisbury as C. parviflorum. Fernald’s original publication on C. calceolus var. parviflorum actually treated var. makasin, citing a description of that variety and clearly discussing the northern plant. Additionally, although geographically accommodating Salisbury’s plant, Fernald excluded most of the range of the southeastern var. parviflorum, thereby referring most plants of var. parviflorum to var. pubescens, and further restricted var. pubescens to the east, thereby assigning most plants of that variety to his northern var. parviflorum, i.e., var. makasin. Consequently, most published illustrations of var. parviflorum are in fact var. makasin. Variety parviflorum has been dealt with primarily in publications on the southeastern flora. In the east, var. makasin is quite distinct, but in the west it becomes difficult to separate from very small plants of var. pubescens that are common there; in that area, fragrance is often the least equivocal character. In the northwest it seems to merge with C. × columbianum, and in fact the northwestern elements of the species are only artificially accommodated within the variety. Very rarely plants apparently referable to var. makasin or var. parviflorum bear white lips. In some cases that may reflect past gene flow, but in others the plants appear to be color forms.  

 Hybrids of Cypripedium parviflorum with C. candidum are C. × andrewsii A. M. Fuller, and different varietal parentages are recognized as nothovar. andrewsii [C. candidum × C. parviflorum var. makasin], nothovar. favillianum (J. T. Curtis) B. Boivin [C. candidum × C. parviflorum var. pubescens], and nothovar. landonii (Garay) B. Boivin [C. parviflorum var. parviflorum × C. × andrewsii nothovar. favillianum]. Hybrids of C. parviflorum with C. montanum are C. × columbianum Sheviak; the type was evidently derived from a cross with var. pubescens. Hybrids of var. pubescens commonly exhibit small lips and thus obscure varietal limits: in the northwest, C. × columbianum merges with var. makasin and var. pubescens; in the midwest, C. × andrewsii nothovar. favillianum may simulate var. parviflorum, and the delimitation of those two entities is unclear. Additionally, many plants of putative C. × andrewsii nothovar. favillianum suggest C. × columbianum. In general, those hybrids exhibit vegetative and floral morphology and color intermediate between those of their parents, or combinations of their parental characteristics. In particular, lips are commonly creamy, ivory, or yellow; often lips are yellow when the flower first opens and fade to white over the period of bloom. Consequently, different flowers on the same plant frequently exhibit a range of lip colors. Lip color furthermore sometimes varies from year to year in individual plants. Additionally, C. montanum and C. parviflorum var. makasin commonly contribute the dark coloration of their sepals and petals to hybrids with C. parviflorum and C. candidum, respectively. The apical margin of the orifice in C. candidum and C. montanum is typically acute, forming a sharp angle directed toward the apex of the lip. In C. parviflorum, this is a variable feature, but typically the margin is obtuse. Variation in this feature in yellow-lipped plants may in some circumstances aid the recognition of hybrids.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The yellow lady's slippers are often considered to be three distinct species, Cypripedium calceolus being strictly Eurasian and the American plants being assigned to either C. parviflorum or C.pubescens (sometimes treated as varieties of C. calceolus). Kartesz (1999) treats the North American plants in this group as three varieties of broadly viewed species called Cypripedium parviflorum (vars. makasin, parviflorum, and pubescens); in 1994, he had treated them as two species, C. parviflorum and C. pubescens, not addressing "var. makasin" which only recently received new recognition. Another, questionably distinct entity, "planipetalum", has been variously treated as a species (e.g., by Kartesz, 1994), as a variety or subspecies of C. calceolus or C. parviflorum, or as a synonym of one of the more generally recognized taxa. Yet another entity, the species Cypripedium kentuckiense, was recognized about 1980 and is now generally accepted as distinct; these plants had previously been confused with one or more of the species in the parviflorum/pubescens group. As presented here, following the Kartesz (1999) treatment, Cypripedium parviflorum is viewed broadly, with varieties makasin, parviflorum, and pubescens. "Cypripedium parviflorum" of Kartesz (1994) corresponds to "C. parviflorum var. parviflorum" as presented here. LEM 28Feb01.

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