Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Cypripedium calceolus var. parviflorum (Salisb.) Fernald:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Global Range: Alaska to Nova Scotia, south to Nebraska and Georgia. This is a widespread species complex whose taxonomy is being revised. The global range of the subspecies found in Alaska cannot now be determined with confidence from the literature.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants erect, 70–700 cm. Flowers: sepals greenish or yellowish (often obscured by darker markings); dorsal sepal suborbiculate or ovate to ovate-lance-acuminate, 19–80 × 7–40 mm; lateral sepals connate; synsepal 11–80 × 5–34 mm; petals horizontal to strongly descending, same color as sepals, commonly spirally twisted or undulate, sometimes flat, linear-lanceolate to lance-ovate or oblong, 24–97 × 3–12 mm; lip rather pale to deep yellow, very rarely white, rarely with reddish spots or suffusion on adaxial external surface, 15–54 mm; orifice basal; staminode cordiform-ovoid, deltoid, lance-ovoid, or ovoid-oblong.
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Diagnostic Description

Petals conspicuously twisted, pouch small, 2-2.5 cm, sepals and petals deep reddish brown.

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Rich, humus and decaying leaf litter in wooded areas, often on rocky wooded hillsides on north or east facing slopes, also wooded loess river bluffs. Moist creeksides or swales in spruce zones, soils sandy loams to loams.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: This is a widespread species complex whose taxonomy is being revised. The global occurrence of the subspecies found in Alaska cannot now be determined with confidence from the literature.

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General Ecology

Constant moisture very important during germination and early development.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL, Long-lived, DECIDUOUS

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cypripedium parviflorum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread in North America, apparently with thousands of occurrences.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

Comments: Rootstock yielded the drug cypridpedium, which was used as an official nerve stimulant.

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Wikipedia

Cypripedium parviflorum

Cypripedium parviflorum, commonly known as Yellow Lady's Slipper, Mocassin Flower,[1] or Hairy Yellow Ladyslipper[2] is a Lady's Slipper orchid found in North America.

Cypripedium parviflorum is a highly variable species across its range with hybridization known. Variety pubescens[2] is sometimes treated as a separate species, Cypripedium pubescens. This taxon has larger flowers with sepals unmarked, spotted, or striped as opposed to uniformly dark.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Voitk, A & M. (2006) Orchids on the Rock: The Orchids of Newfoundland, Rocky Harbour, NL: Gros Morne Co-operating Association.
  2. ^ a b Cypripedium parviflorum, Digital Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador
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Notes

Comments

Cypripedium parviflorum is extremely variable, reflecting individual phenotypic plasticity, infraspecific differentiation, and hybridization with related species. In particular, var. pubescens is difficult to delimit. In exposed situations, especially in calcareous soils, plants are low-growing with ascending, often narrow leaves and rather small flowers; in exposed boreal and arctic sites, plants and flowers may be very small with scarcely spiraled to flat petals. Such plants from Newfoundland were originally described as C. parviflorum var. planipetalum. When transplanted to less severe conditions, those plants often develop into larger plants with larger flowers of more common form; indeed, the holotype sheet of var. planipetalum includes a range in habit and floral morphology and includes a plant rather typical of boreal var. pubescens. The lips of smaller flowers often are markedly compressed laterally, with parallel sides, but when larger flowers are produced by the same plant, the proportions of the lip often change, the lip then being very broad below and tapering toward the adaxial surface (trapezoidal in cross section) or sometimes dorsiventrally compressed and broader than high.  

 The southeastern var. parviflorum differs from var. pubescens primarily in flower size and color, and the two might be merely forms. Most works dealing with Cypripedium parviflorum have treated the primarily boreal var. makasin as var. parviflorum, either including all small-lipped plants within var. parviflorum, or in some cases restricting the name to the northern variety and excluding the southeastern plants described by Salisbury as C. parviflorum. Fernald’s original publication on C. calceolus var. parviflorum actually treated var. makasin, citing a description of that variety and clearly discussing the northern plant. Additionally, although geographically accommodating Salisbury’s plant, Fernald excluded most of the range of the southeastern var. parviflorum, thereby referring most plants of var. parviflorum to var. pubescens, and further restricted var. pubescens to the east, thereby assigning most plants of that variety to his northern var. parviflorum, i.e., var. makasin. Consequently, most published illustrations of var. parviflorum are in fact var. makasin. Variety parviflorum has been dealt with primarily in publications on the southeastern flora. In the east, var. makasin is quite distinct, but in the west it becomes difficult to separate from very small plants of var. pubescens that are common there; in that area, fragrance is often the least equivocal character. In the northwest it seems to merge with C. × columbianum, and in fact the northwestern elements of the species are only artificially accommodated within the variety. Very rarely plants apparently referable to var. makasin or var. parviflorum bear white lips. In some cases that may reflect past gene flow, but in others the plants appear to be color forms.  

 Hybrids of Cypripedium parviflorum with C. candidum are C. × andrewsii A. M. Fuller, and different varietal parentages are recognized as nothovar. andrewsii [C. candidum × C. parviflorum var. makasin], nothovar. favillianum (J. T. Curtis) B. Boivin [C. candidum × C. parviflorum var. pubescens], and nothovar. landonii (Garay) B. Boivin [C. parviflorum var. parviflorum × C. × andrewsii nothovar. favillianum]. Hybrids of C. parviflorum with C. montanum are C. × columbianum Sheviak; the type was evidently derived from a cross with var. pubescens. Hybrids of var. pubescens commonly exhibit small lips and thus obscure varietal limits: in the northwest, C. × columbianum merges with var. makasin and var. pubescens; in the midwest, C. × andrewsii nothovar. favillianum may simulate var. parviflorum, and the delimitation of those two entities is unclear. Additionally, many plants of putative C. × andrewsii nothovar. favillianum suggest C. × columbianum. In general, those hybrids exhibit vegetative and floral morphology and color intermediate between those of their parents, or combinations of their parental characteristics. In particular, lips are commonly creamy, ivory, or yellow; often lips are yellow when the flower first opens and fade to white over the period of bloom. Consequently, different flowers on the same plant frequently exhibit a range of lip colors. Lip color furthermore sometimes varies from year to year in individual plants. Additionally, C. montanum and C. parviflorum var. makasin commonly contribute the dark coloration of their sepals and petals to hybrids with C. parviflorum and C. candidum, respectively. The apical margin of the orifice in C. candidum and C. montanum is typically acute, forming a sharp angle directed toward the apex of the lip. In C. parviflorum, this is a variable feature, but typically the margin is obtuse. Variation in this feature in yellow-lipped plants may in some circumstances aid the recognition of hybrids.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The yellow lady's slippers are often considered to be three distinct species, Cypripedium calceolus being strictly Eurasian and the American plants being assigned to either C. parviflorum or C. pubescens (sometimes treated as varieties of C. calceolus). Kartesz (1999) treats the North American plants in this group as three varieties of broadly viewed species called Cypripedium parviflorum (vars. makasin, parviflorum, and pubescens); in 1994, he had treated them as two species, C. parviflorum and C. pubescens, not addressing "var. makasin" which only recently received new recognition. Another, questionably distinct entity, "planipetalum", has been variously treated as a species (e.g., by Kartesz, 1994), as a variety or subspecies of C. calceolus or C. parviflorum, or as a synonym of one of the more generally recognized taxa. Yet another entity, the species Cypripedium kentuckiense, was recognized about 1980 and is now generally accepted as distinct; these plants had previously been confused with one or more of the species in the parviflorum/pubescens group. As presented here, following the Kartesz (1999) treatment, Cypripedium parviflorum is viewed broadly, with varieties makasin, parviflorum, and pubescens. "Cypripedium parviflorum" of Kartesz (1994) corresponds to "C. parviflorum var. parviflorum" as presented here. LEM 28Feb01.

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