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The family has long been recognized within the Trichoptera, being first established by Ulmer (1906). The nominotypical genus was included in a “section” of Leptoceridae by McLachlan and a few other early workers. The 8 genera are well defined and together comprise about 175 species from around the world. Anisocentropus McLachlan and Phylloicus Müller are the largest genera in the family with over 60 species each. The former is widespread in the Paleotropics of Africa, Asia, and Australia, with 1 outlying species in eastern North America. Phylloicus is endemic to the Neotropics, with several species extending their range into the southwestern USA. Banyallarga Navás is another Neotropical endemic of less than 20 species. The Neotropical fauna was recently revised in its entirety by Prather (2003, 2004). The other species rich genus in the family is Ganonema McLachlan, with about 20 species in the Oriental and eastern Palearctic regions. Smaller genera, with no more than 2 or 3 species each, include: Ascalaphomerus Walker (China), Calamoceras Brauer (Europe), Georgium Fischer (Japan, Thailand), and Heteroplectron McLachlan (eastern and western North America, Japan). Larvae of the family are well known for their flattened cases made of large pieces of excised leaves that completely camouflage the larva from above. Others build tubular cases of sand grains or hollow a twig to use as a case. The larvae inhabit the slower, depositional areas of small streams and rivers where they feed as shredders of leaf litter and other plant detritus. Larvae of a Brazilian species inhabit the “tanks” of water trapped by the leaf axils of bromeliads. Adults of many species have very brightly colored and patterned wings imparted by thickened hairs or scales. Many are more active during the day than most Trichoptera, as they engage in diurnal mating behavior. (From Holzenthal et al., 2007)


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