Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
BiologyA semi-anadromous species which occurs mostly in shallow brackish coastal waters. During summer at the sea, adults are most abundant at water depth of 2.5-4.0 m and salinity of 2-4 ppt. Enters freshwater of estuaries, lagoons and lower reaches of large rivers to spawn. In rivers, juveniles take plankton (mostly Cladocera) and small benthic animals as food. At the sea, they feed on oligochaetes, chironomid larvae and algae. Adults also prey on crustaceans, worms and chironomids larvae. Spawns on shallow shores of coastal lakes and flooded areas. After spawning adult move back to the sea to join groups of immature juveniles, not traveling for long distances, staying in areas with high abundance of prey. Larvae migrate to the sea (Ref. 59043).