Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Other common names for this species are 'White Bedstraw' and 'Wild Madder.' The outstanding characteristic of Hedge Bedstraw is the large terminal inflorescence and its multitude of small white flowers. Most Galium spp. (Bedstraws) produce much smaller cymes of flowers, often from the axils of the whorled leaves. An exception is the native Galium boreale (Northern Bedstraw), which produces a similar inflorescence. However, Northern Bedstraw is a more erect plant with slightly larger flowers (about ¼" across) and there are only 4 leaves in each whorl. The common Galium aparine (Cleavers) has whorls of 6-8 leaves like Hedge Bedstraw, but its flowers are even smaller in size and they occur in small axillary cymes. Furthermore, both the leaves and stems of Cleavers have bristly hairs that can cling to adjacent vegetation, the fur of animals, or the clothing of humans.
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Description

This adventive perennial plant is 1–2½' long and unbranched, except near the inflorescence. The lower stem is often decumbent along the ground, while the upper stem and inflorescence are more or less erect. In the absence of support from adjacent vegetation, this plant has a tendency to sprawl. The central stem is glabrous, 4-angled, and often furrowed; it becomes slightly swollen where the whorls of leaves occur. Each whorl has 6-8 leaves; these whorls of leaves become rather widely spaced as the central stem elongates. Each leaf is up to 1" long and ¼" across (or slightly larger). It is oblong or oblanceolate, glabrous, and smooth along its margin; sometimes this margin is slightly ciliate. There is a single prominent vein along its upper surface. The foliage of this plant lacks any stiff or clinging hairs. The central stem terminates in a panicle of cymes up to 1' long. This panicle is longer than it is broad and contains a multitude of small white flowers. There is often a pair of small leaves (or leafy bracts) at the base of each cyme along the central flowering stalk. Each flower is about 1/6" across. It has a white corolla with 4 lobes (rarely 3) and a pair of ovoid carpels at its base that are green, hairless, and joined together. The throat of the corolla is quite narrow, from which there protrudes a pair of styles. Each lobe of the corolla becomes pointed at its tip. The blooming period occurs from late spring to mid-summer, and lasts about 1 month. Some plants bloom later than others. Each carpel contains a seed that is convex on one side and concave on the other. The root system is rhizomatous and can produce numerous vegetative offsets.
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Hedge Bedstraw is an uncommon plant that occurs primarily in northern Illinois (see Distribution Map). This species is native to Europe and it is more common in the Eastern states; Illinois lies at the western end of its distribution (excluding where it occurs along the Pacific Coast). Habitats include areas along railroads and roadsides, thickets, woodland borders, and various waste places. Hedge Bedstraw is currently found in areas with a history of disturbance.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

Gebel Elba.

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Global Distribution

East Mediterranean region.

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Hedge Bedstraw is an uncommon plant that occurs primarily in northern Illinois (see Distribution Map). This species is native to Europe and it is more common in the Eastern states; Illinois lies at the western end of its distribution (excluding where it occurs along the Pacific Coast). Habitats include areas along railroads and roadsides, thickets, woodland borders, and various waste places. Hedge Bedstraw is currently found in areas with a history of disturbance.
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Hillsides.

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Associations

Faunal Associations

According to Müller of 19th century Germany, the small amount of nectar in the flowers attracts various kinds of flies, including Soldier flies, Bee flies, Syrphid flies (which also feed on the pollen), Muscid flies, Crane flies, and Dung flies. It is possible that small bees also visit the flowers, but they are probably less common. The foliage of Galium spp. (Bedstraws) is eaten by the caterpillars of several moths, including Lobocleta ossularia (Drab Brown Wave), Pleuroprucha insularia (Common Tan Wave), and Scopula limboundata (Large Lace Border). Little information is available about this species' relationship to birds and mammalian herbivores. Because the carpels of Hedge Bedstraw lack bristly hairs, they don't cling readily to the fur of mammals or the clothing of humans. Photographic Location
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Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Aglaostigma aucupariae grazes on leaf of Galium mollugo

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Aglaostigma fulvipes grazes on leaf of Galium mollugo

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
slightly protruding, clear brown pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta caulicola causes spots on dead stem of Galium mollugo
Remarks: season: 4

Plant / resting place / on
puparium of Aulagromyza buhri may be found on stem of Galium mollugo
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Aulagromyza trivittata feeds within stem of Galium mollugo
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, black, ocvered then erumpent by papilla pycnidium of Diplodina coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodina galii is saprobic on Galium mollugo
Remarks: season: 4

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Halidamia affinis grazes on leaf of Galium mollugo

Foodplant / parasite
Sporonema coelomycetous anamorph of Leptotrochila verrucosa parasitises fading leaf of Galium mollugo
Remarks: season: 4-10

Foodplant / false gall
embedded sorus of Melanotaenium endogenum causes swelling of live shoot of Galium mollugo
Remarks: season: 6-7
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
female of Melanthrips ficalbii may be found on live flower of Galium mollugo
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / parasite
Neoerysiphe galii parasitises live Galium mollugo

Foodplant / miner
larva of Ophiomyia galii mines stem of Galium mollugo
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
underground tuber of Orobanche caryophyllacea parasitises root of Galium mollugo
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora galii parasitises live Galium mollugo

Foodplant / saprobe
thinly scattered, immersed soon erumpent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis elliptica is saprobic on dead stem of Galium mollugo
Remarks: season: 1-4

Foodplant / feeds on
subepidermal, elongate stroma of Placosphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Placosphaeria galii feeds on stem of Galium mollugo
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / parasite
grouped pycnidium of Placosphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Placosphaeria punctiformis parasitises stem of Galium mollugo
Remarks: season: 7-10

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous telium of Puccinia punctata parasitises live leaf of Galium mollugo

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious to scattered, erumpent apothecium of Pyrenopeziza galii is saprobic on dead stem of Galium mollugo

Foodplant / saprobe
minute, scattered, punctiform, black pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria galiorum is saprobic on dead stem of Galium mollugo
Remarks: season: 6

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Perennial.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Galium mollugo

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Galium mollugo

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 16
Specimens with Barcodes: 28
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

This plant can be found growing in light shade to full sun in more or less mesic conditions. It becomes larger in fertile loam, but can grow in other kinds of soil.
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Wikipedia

Galium mollugo

Galium mollugo, common name hedge bedstraw or false baby's breath, is a herbaceous annual plant of the family Rubiaceae.

Description[edit]

Galium mollugo can reach a height of 15–100 centimetres (5.9–39.4 in). The stems are square in cross-section, more or less erect with ascending branches. Starting from the axils of leaves it has inflorescences of small white flowers with a diameter of about 1 to 1.5 cm, with four petals. The flowering period extends from May to September.[1][2]

Habitat[edit]

Galium mollugo commonly occurs in hedges, bushes, paths, meadows and slopes at an elevation up to 2,100 metres (6,900 ft) above sea level.

Distribution[edit]

Galium mollugo is widely distributed in Europe and North Africa from Denmark, Portugal and Morocco east to the Altay region of Siberia and to the Caucasus. It is naturalized in the Russian Far East, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Greenland, Argentina, Uruguay, and much of North America. It has been reported from the Rocky Mountains, the Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada and the Appalachian Mountains as well as the Great Lakes region. It is classified as a noxious weed in New York, Pennsylvania and much of New England.[3][4][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hickman, J. C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  2. ^ Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  3. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  4. ^ Biota of North America Program
  5. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana
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