Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This is the only species of its genus in North America. Partridge Berry has ornamental foliage, flowers, and berries. It can distinguished from other woody vines by its small size, pairs of showy white flowers, and long-lasting red berries. Another common for this species is Twinberry.
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Description

This small vine is slightly woody, forming a low mat of evergreen leaves up to 4" tall and 1' or more across. The stems are mostly light green to light brown and either glabrous or hairy; old stems become brown, smooth, and woody. Pairs of opposite leaves occur along these stems on short petioles up to ¼" long. The leaves are ¼-1" long and similarly across; they are oval to orbicular in shape and smooth to slightly undulate along their margins. The upper leaf surface is glabrous, shiny, and mostly dark green, although it is often nearly white along the central vein and some of the lateral veins. The lower leaf surface is glabrous and more pale. Pairs of upright flowers occur at the tips of branches or from the axils of leaves. Each flower has a hairy white corolla about ½" long, 4 stamens, and a pistil with single style. Each pair of flowers share the same short-tubular calyx. The corolla is trumpet-shaped with 4 spreading lobes, while the calyx is light green with tiny teeth along its upper rim. There are 4 filiform stigmata per style. There are two types of flowers
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Partridge Berry occurs occasionally in NE Illinois and southern Illinois, while in the rest of the state it is uncommon or absent. This small vine is distributed across a wide area of eastern North America. Habitats include rocky upland woodlands, sandy savannas, slopes of wooded sand dunes, sandstone cliffs, sandstone ledges along ravines, mossy boulders in wooded ravines, rocky river banks, edges of Red Maple swamps, and bogs. Partridge Berry is found in high quality natural areas.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Partridgeberry is widely distributed throughout the eastern United
States. It ranges from Newfoundland south to central Florida and from
southern Ontario and Minnesota south to eastern Texas [4,5,22,24,31].
  • 24. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 4. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
  • 5. Brinkman, K. A.; Erdmann, G. G. 1974. Mitchella repens L. partridgeberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 543. [7709]
  • 22. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 31. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Tampa, FL: University Presses of Florida, University of South Florida. 472 p. [13125]

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Occurrence in North America

AL AR CT DE FL GA IL IN IA KS
KY ME MD MA MI MN MS MO NH NJ
NY NC OH OK PA SC TN TX VT VA
WV WI NB NF NS ON PQ

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the term: vine

Partridgeberry is a creeping, rhizomatous, evergreen, woody vine up to
1.5 feet (50 cm) tall. It roots at the nodes and often forms loose
mats. The flowers are borne in axillary, single stalks at the tip of
the branchlets. The fruit is a drupe containing eight seeds
[11,19,22,24].
  • 19. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 24. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 11. Godfrey, Robert K.; Wooten, Jean W. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 933 p. [16907]
  • 22. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Partridge Berry occurs occasionally in NE Illinois and southern Illinois, while in the rest of the state it is uncommon or absent. This small vine is distributed across a wide area of eastern North America. Habitats include rocky upland woodlands, sandy savannas, slopes of wooded sand dunes, sandstone cliffs, sandstone ledges along ravines, mossy boulders in wooded ravines, rocky river banks, edges of Red Maple swamps, and bogs. Partridge Berry is found in high quality natural areas.
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Habitat characteristics

More info for the term: mesic

Partridgeberry grows on a variety of sites but generally prefers mildly
acidic, well-drained mesic soils [1,17] It grows on leached banks,
shaded sandstone ledges, and mossy hammocks and bogs [4,10,11].

In addition to those identified under Distribution and Occurrence,
common associates of partridgeberry include red mulberry (Morus rubra),
strawberry-bush (Euonymus americanus), Carolina silverberry (Halesia
carolina), southern black-haw (Viburnum prunifolium), devil's
walkingstick (Aralia spinosa), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus
quinquefolia), Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense), yaupon (Ilex
vomitoria), huckleberry (Gaylussacia spp.), blueberry (Vaccinium spp.),
hickory (Carya spp.), grape (Vitis spp.), wintergreen (Gaultheria
procumbens), and fetterbush (Lyonia ferruginea) [3,4,16,26]. A complete
list of trees associated with partridgeberry would include a majority of
trees growing in the eastern United States.
  • 4. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
  • 1. Archambault, Louis; Barnes, Burton V.; Witter, John A. 1989. Ecological species groups of oak ecosystems of southeastern Michigan. Forest Science. 35(4): 1058-1074. [9768]
  • 10. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 11. Godfrey, Robert K.; Wooten, Jean W. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 933 p. [16907]
  • 3. Bierzychudek, Paulette. 1982. Life histories and demography of shade-tolerant temperate forest herbs: a review. New Phytologist. 90: 757-776. [19197]
  • 16. Kurz, Herman. 1944. Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills. Proceedings, Florida Academy of Science. 7(1): 59-100. [10799]
  • 17. Lemieux, G. J. 1963. Soil-vegetation relationships in northern hardwoods of Quebec. In: Forest-soil relationships in North America. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 163-176. [8874]
  • 26. Stransky, John J.; Huntley, Jimmy C.; Risner, Wanda J. 1986. Net community production dynamics in the herb-shrub stratum of a loblolly pine-hardwood forest: effects of clearcutting and site prepar. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-61. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 11 p. [9835]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: climax

Partridgeberry is part of the climax undergrowth vegetation in several
forest communities in the eastern United States. It is not an indicator
or dominant species in any habitat types [12,16,21,26].
  • 12. Hough, A. F. 1936. A climax forest community on East Tionesta Creek in northwestern Pennsylvania. Ecology. 17(1): 9-28. [3460]
  • 16. Kurz, Herman. 1944. Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills. Proceedings, Florida Academy of Science. 7(1): 59-100. [10799]
  • 21. Roberts, Mark R.; Christensen, Norman L. 1988. Vegetation variation among mesic successional forest stands in northern lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66(6): 1080-1090. [14479]
  • 26. Stransky, John J.; Huntley, Jimmy C.; Risner, Wanda J. 1986. Net community production dynamics in the herb-shrub stratum of a loblolly pine-hardwood forest: effects of clearcutting and site prepar. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-61. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 11 p. [9835]

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: hardwood

14 Northern pin oak
17 Pin cherry
19 Gray birch - red maple
20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple
21 Eastern white pine
22 White pine - hemlock
23 Eastern hemlock
25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch
28 Black cherry - maple
31 Red spruce - sugar maple - beech
43 Bear oak
44 Chestnut oak
51 White pine - chestnut oak
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak
60 Beech - sugar maple
62 Silver maple - American elm
64 Sassafras - persimmon
80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
82 Loblolly pine - hardwood
83 Longleaf pine - slash pine
93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash
97 Atlantic white-cedar
108 Red maple
110 Black oak

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest
K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest
K100 Oak - hickory forest
K101 Elm - ash forest
K102 Beech - maple forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest
K106 Northern hardwoods
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest
K113 Southern floodplain forest

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES10 White - red - jack pine
FRES11 Spruce - fir
FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress
FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
FRES19 Aspen - birch

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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers are cross-pollinated by bumblebees (Hicks et al., 1985). The primary floral reward for these insects is nectar. Apparently very few insects feed on the foliage of Partridge Berry. Some upland gamebirds feed on the fruits of this vine, including such species as the Ruffed Grouse, Bobwhite Quail, Wild Turkey, and the now extinct Passenger Pigeon (Martin et al., 1951/1961; Bennetts, 1900; Schorger, 1955). Mammals that feed on the fruits include the Red Fox, Eastern Skunk, Eastern Chipmunk, White-Footed Mouse, and Woodland Deer Mouse (Martin et al., 1951/1961; Hamilton, 1941). These animals spread the seeds of the berries to new locations.
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Flower-Visiting Insects of Partridge Berry in Illinois

Mitchella repens (Partridge Berry)
(bumblebees suck nectar; observations are from Hicks et al.)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens sn, Bombus vagans sn

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General Ecology

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the term: prescribed fire

The Research Project Summary Effects of surface fires in a mixed red and
eastern white pine stand in Michigan
provides information on prescribed
fire and postfire response of plant community species, including
partridgeberry, that was not available when this species review was written.

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the term: frequency

Partridgeberry's response to fire is not well documented. Reports in
the literature suggest that it is a fire decreaser, although postfire
density, frequency, or growth rates for partridgeberry were not given
[9,23,29,30].
  • 9. Gilliam, Frank S. 1991. The significance of fire in an oligotrophic forest ecosystem. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 113-122. [16641]
  • 23. Sidhu, S. S. 1973. Early effects of burning and logging in pine-mixed woods. I. Frequency and biomass of minor vegetation. Inf. Rep. PS-X-46. Chalk River, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Petawawa Forest Experiment Station. 47 p. [7901]
  • 30. White, David L.; Waldrop, Thomas A.; Jones, Stephen M. 1991. Forty years of prescribed burning on the Santee fire plots: effects on understory vegetation. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 51-59. [16633]
  • 29. Waldrop, Thomas A.; White, David L.; Jones, Steven M. 1992. FIRE REGIMES for pine-grassland communities in the southeastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management. 47: 195-210. [17763]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the term: top-kill

Most fires probably top-kill partridgeberry, and severe fires may kill
the plant.

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the term: rhizome

Rhizomatous low woody plant, rhizome in organic mantle

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: litter, vines

Partridgeberry is not well adapted to fire. The rhizomes are usually in
the litter layer and not well protected from fire [6,18]. However,
protected and underground rhizomes probably sprout following fire.
Partridgeberry probably colonizes burned area by animal-dispersed seed
or by trailing vines, but these regeneration strategies have not been
documented in the literature.
  • 18. McKinley, Carol E.; Day, Frank P., Jr. 1979. Herb. prod. in cut-burned, uncut-burned & contl areas of a Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSP (Cupressaceae) stand in the Great Dismal Swamp. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 106(1): 20-28. [14089]
  • 6. Chapman, Rachel Ross; Crow, Garrett E. 1981. Application of Raunkiaer's life form system to plant species survival after fire. Torrey Botanical Club. 108(4): 472-478. [7432]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: climax

Facultative Seral Species

Partridgeberry is a shade tolerant, mid- to late-seral species. It is a
component of climax forests in the eastern United States [3,16,26].
  • 3. Bierzychudek, Paulette. 1982. Life histories and demography of shade-tolerant temperate forest herbs: a review. New Phytologist. 90: 757-776. [19197]
  • 16. Kurz, Herman. 1944. Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills. Proceedings, Florida Academy of Science. 7(1): 59-100. [10799]
  • 26. Stransky, John J.; Huntley, Jimmy C.; Risner, Wanda J. 1986. Net community production dynamics in the herb-shrub stratum of a loblolly pine-hardwood forest: effects of clearcutting and site prepar. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-61. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 11 p. [9835]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

Hemicryptophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: shrub

Shrub

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Regeneration Processes

Although partridgeberry is a seed producer, information regarding its
propagation by seed is scant. The primary mode of reproduction is
vegetative [3].
  • 3. Bierzychudek, Paulette. 1982. Life histories and demography of shade-tolerant temperate forest herbs: a review. New Phytologist. 90: 757-776. [19197]

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Partridgeberry flowers between April and June, and often again in
autumn. The fruit ripens between July and October, and often persists
throughout the year [3,10,28].
  • 28. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 10. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 3. Bierzychudek, Paulette. 1982. Life histories and demography of shade-tolerant temperate forest herbs: a review. New Phytologist. 90: 757-776. [19197]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Mitchella repens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mitchella repens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is light shade to partial sun, moist to dry-mesic conditions, and an acidic soil containing sand or rocky material (e.g., sandstone). Partridge Berry is not aggressive and it can be difficult to establish. However, it can be cultivated in a partially shaded rock garden where the soil is shallow and competition from other plants is restricted. Flowers and fruits are sparingly produced.
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Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Other uses and values

Partridgeberry has been planted as an ornamental in several parts of its
range [2]. In Newfoundland, the berry is made into jam and sold
commercially [15].
  • 2. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 15. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

The fruit of partridgeberry is eaten by ruffed grouse, northern
bobwhite, sharp-tailed grouse, and prairie chicken. The fruit is also
frequently eaten by raccoons and red fox [5,28]. Keegan [13] reported
that partridgeberry made up 2.9 to 3.4 percent (dry weight) of the
summer and fall diets of white-tailed deer.
  • 28. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 5. Brinkman, K. A.; Erdmann, G. G. 1974. Mitchella repens L. partridgeberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 543. [7709]
  • 13. Keegan, Thomas W.; Johnson, Mark K.; Nelson, Billy D. 1989. American jointvetch improves summer range for white-tailed deer. Journal of Range Management. 42(2): 128-134. [9840]

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Wikipedia

Mitchella repens

Mitchella repens, or partridge berry,[1][2][3][4] or Squaw Vine, is the best known plant in the genus Mitchella. It is a creeping prostrate herbaceous woody shrub, occurring in North America and Japan, and belonging to the madder family (Rubiaceae).

Taxonomy[edit]

Mitchella repens is one of the many species first described by Carl Linnaeus. Its species name is the Latin adjective repens "creeping". Common names for Mitchella repens include partridge berry (or partridgeberry), squaw berry, two-eyed berry, running fox, and Noon kie oo nah yeah (in the Mohawk language).

Description[edit]

Partridge berry is an evergreen plant growing as a non-climbing vine, no taller than 6 cm tall with creeping stems 15 to 30 cm long. The evergreen, dark green, shiny leaves are ovate to cordate in shape. The leaves have a pale yellow midrib. The petioles are short, and the leaves are paired oppositely on the stems. Adventitious roots may grow at the nodes;[5] and rooting stems may branch and root repeatedly, producing loose spreading mats.

The small, trumpet-shaped, axillary flowers are produced in pairs, and each flower pair arises from one common calyx which is covered with fine hairs. Each flower has four white petals, one pistil, and four stamens. Partridge Berry is a distylous taxa. The plants have either flowers with long pistils and short stamens (long-styled flowers, called the pin), or have short pistils and long stamens (short-styled flowers, called the thrum).[6] The two style morphs are genetically determined, so the pollen from one morph does not fertilize the other morph, resulting in a form of heteromorphic self-incompatibility.[7]

Partridge Berry (Mitchella repens)
Foliage, inflorescence, and unopened blossom
Berries

The ovaries of the twin flowers fuse, so that there are two flowers for each berry. The two bright red spots on each berry are vestiges of this process. The fruit ripens between July and October, and may persist through the winter. The fruit is a drupe containing up to eight seeds. The fruits are never abundant. They may be part of the diets of several birds, such as ruffed grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, northern bobwhite, and wild turkey. They are also consumed by foxes, white-footed mice, and skunks.[8][9] The foliage is occasionally consumed by White-tailed deer.[10]

The common reproduction is vegetative, with plants forming spreading colonies.[11]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The species is dispersed throughout eastern North America, from south Eastern Canada south to Florida and Texas, and to Guatemala. It is found growing in dry or moist woods, along stream banks and on sandy slopes.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Mitchella repens is cultivated for its ornamental red berries and shiny, bright green foliage.[11] It is grown as a creeping ground cover in shady locations. It is rarely propagated for garden use by way of seeds but cuttings are easy.[12] The plants have been widely collected for Christmas decorations, and over collecting has impacted some local populations negatively.[11] American Indian women made a tea from the leaves and berries that was consumed during childbirth.[11] The plants are sometimes grown in terrariums.[13] The scarlet berries are edible but rather tasteless, with a faint flavour of wintergreen, resembling cranberries (to which they are not closely related).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peterson, Roger Tory, and McKenny, Margaret. A Field Guide to Wildflowers of Northeastern and North-central North America. ISBN 0-395-91172-9. 
  2. ^ MacKenzie, David, S. Perennial Ground Covers. ISBN 0-88192-557-8. 
  3. ^ Hutchens, Alma R. Indian Herbalogy of North America. ISBN 0-87773-639-1. 
  4. ^ Hall, Joan Houston (2002). Dictionary of American Regional English. Harvard University Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-674-00884-7. Retrieved 2007-11-16. 
  5. ^ Nathaniel Lord Britton; Addison Brown (1913). An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian. C. Scribner's sons. pp. 255–. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  6. ^ Reproductive Biology of Distylous Partridgeberry, Mitchella repens. David J. Hicks, Robert Wyatt and Thomas R. Meagher Vol. 72, No. 10 (Oct., 1985), pp. 1503-1514 Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443300
  7. ^ Fecundity in Distylous and Self-Incompatible Homostylous Plants of Mitchella repens (Rubiaceae) Fred R. Ganders Vol. 29, No. 1 (Mar., 1975), pp. 186-188 Published by: Society for the Study of Evolution Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2407152
  8. ^ Alexander Campbell Martin; Herbert Spencer Zim; Arnold L. Nelson (1951). American wildlife & plants: a guide to wildlife food habits; the use of trees, shrubs, weeds, and herbs by birds and mammals of the United States. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 361–. ISBN 978-0-486-20793-3. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  9. ^ Marie Harrison (30 March 2006). Groundcovers for the South. Pineapple Press Inc. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-1-56164-347-9. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  10. ^ James Howard Miller; Karl V. Miller (May 2005). Forest plants of the Southeast and their wildlife uses. University of Georgia Press. pp. 280–. ISBN 978-0-8203-2748-8. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  11. ^ a b c d Wolfram George Schmid (13 September 2002). An encyclopedia of shade perennials. Timber Press. pp. 243–. ISBN 978-0-88192-549-4. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  12. ^ William Cullina (18 March 2000). New England Wildflower Society guide to growing and propagating wildflowers of the United States and Canada. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 148–. ISBN 978-0-395-96609-9. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  13. ^ http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=MIRE
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Common Names

partridgeberry
two-eyed berry
running-fox

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The currently accepted scientific name for partridgeberry is Mitchella
repens L. [5,10]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or
forms.
  • 10. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 5. Brinkman, K. A.; Erdmann, G. G. 1974. Mitchella repens L. partridgeberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 543. [7709]

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