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Introduction

The family shows a disjunct Gondwanan distribution with species in Australia, including Tasmania, the Neotropics (northern Andes, southeast Brazil), and the Seychelles. It was erected by Neboiss (1978) to accommodate the Australasian species Atriplectides dubius Mosely, originally described in the Leptoceridae subfamily Triplectidinae and later transferred to the Odontoceridae (Mosely & Kimmins 1953). Upon discovery of the very unusual larval stage, Neboiss established the family and also transferred the monotypic Seychelles genus Hughscottiella auricalla Ulmer, originally described in Odontoceridae, to Atriplectididae. Neboiss (1999) described a 2nd Australasian species Atriplectides ikmaleus and Holzenthal (1997) described a new genus and species from Peru, Neoatriplectides froehlichi, such that the family now contains 4 species. The larval stages of all 3 genera are known (Holzenthal 1997, Marlier 1978, Neboiss 1978) and are unique within the Trichoptera in that the head, pro- and mesonota are narrow, elongate, and retractile. Larvae feed as scavengers by cutting a small opening in the body of dead arthropods, thus allowing them to insert their head and anterior thorax to feed on the internal tissues (Malicky 1997). They are found in sandy bottom sediments of small streams and lakes. (from Holzenthal et al., 2007)

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