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Introduction

Apataniidae is a northern and montane group found in North America, Europe, and Asia. The family names dates to Wallengren (1886), but for most of its history it was included as a subfamily of Limnephilidae. Wiggins (1996) treated the group as a distinct family and subsequent workers have accepted this designation. There are nearly 200 species in 18 genera. Four genera, Allomyia Banks (Nearctic and eastern Palearctic, 23 species), Manophylax Wiggins (Nearctic and eastern Palearctic, 6 species), Moselyana Denning (Oregon, monotypic), and Pedomoecus Ross (Pacific northwest of North America, monotypic), form a monophyletic group (Gall 1994) separate from either subfamily.

Apataniid larvae construct cases of small rock pieces, although Manophylax larvae also add plant pieces to the upper surface (Wiggins 2004). Corbet (1966) documented parthenogenesis in some species of Apatania. Larvae occur in cool running waters, but at high elevations and extreme northern latitudes, some species of Apatania are found in lakes. Most larvae graze periphyton from rocks with scraper mandibles. Some species also occur in hygropetric habitats, some of which are dry for much of the year. The larvae of Moselyana are found in spring seepages, and are detritivores with toothed mandibles. (From Holzenthal et al., 2007)

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