Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is a large aroid, which is found throughout Asia. The taxon is reported to occur in China, Bangladesh, India (including the Andaman Islands), Sri Lanka, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, Indonesia, Java, the lesser Sunda Islands, Sumatera, New Guinea, Borneo, Malaysia, the Philippines, northern Australia, Fiji and Samoa. It has been cultivated for centuries in the Asian and Indopacific region and its natural distribution has been totally obscured because many specimens found in the wild are (probably) weedy escapees from cultivation (Heitterscheid and Ittenbach 1996).
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"
Global Distribution

India, Sri Lanka and Pacific Islands

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Corm to 20 cm across, depressed globose, tubercled, pale pink inside. Petiole to 50 cm long, 3-4 cm thick, green with brown patches; lamina 70-120 cm across; lobes to 14 x 5.5 mm, ovate, acuminate, decurrent at base into a wing to the petiole; nerves impressed above. Spathe 38 cm across, campanulate, undulate, dull greenish brown; spadix as long as spathe; appendage obovoid, 20-25 cm across, uneven, rugose, deep pink. Flowers on the lower half of the spadix. Berry 15 x 10 mm, oblong, obovoid, orange-red, glabrous."
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is ruderal in habit and grows in a very wide range of moist, semi-shaded to open, secondary and disturbed forests, shrublands, scrubs and grasslands, from sea level to ca 700 m asl. The flowers are monoecious and smell of rotting flesh so as to attract carrion flies as pollinators (Heitterscheid and Ittenbach 1996).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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General Habitat

"Moist deciduous, also in the plains"
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: May-June
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amorphophallus campanulatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Amorphophallus paeonifolius var. campanulatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amorphophallus paeonifolius var. campanulatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Amorphophallus bangkokensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amorphophallus bangkokensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Romand-Monnier, F.

Reviewer/s
Scott, J.A.

Contributor/s

Justification
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is rated as Least Concern due to its very large geographic range, ruderal and weedy habit, low habitat specificity, the fact that it is widely cultivated throughout its range and occurs within numerous conservation units.
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Population

Population
It is locally common, abundant and ruderal in habit. The size and dynamics of the current population are unknown (Heitterscheid and Ittenbach 1996).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known direct threats to this weedy, ruderal, locally common and widespread aroid species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs within numerous conservation units. The genetic diversity of this valuable food crop should be maintained.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, the elephant foot yam or whitespot giant arum[3][4] or stink lily, is a tropical tuber crop grown primarily in Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the tropical Pacific islands. Because of its production potential and popularity as a vegetable in various cuisines, it can be raised as a cash crop.

Description[edit]

The plant gives off a putrid smell. The pistillate (female) and staminate (male) flowers are on the same plant and are crowded in cylindrical masses. The berries are red when ripe and are not quite round, being subglobose or oviod.[2]

Human relevance[edit]

As food[edit]

Elephant foot yam

Elephant foot yam is of Southeast Asian origin. It grows in its wild form in Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and other Southeast Asian countries.

In India this species as a crop is grown mostly in Bihar, West Bengal, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Orissa. In India it is popularly known as "oal" (ol (ওল) in Bengali, suran or jimikand in Hindi, senai kizhangu in Tamil, suvarna gedde in Kannada, chena (ചേന) in Malayalam, oluo in Oriya,pulla ganda in Telugu and kaene in Tulu).

In Bihar its used in oal curry, oal bharta or chokha, pickles and chutney. Oal chutney is also called "barabar chutney" as it has mango, ginger and oal in equal quantities, hence the name barabar (meaning "in equal amount").

In West Bengal, these yams are eaten fried or in yam curry. The plant body of elephant foot yam is also eaten in West Bengal as a green vegetable called Bengali: ওল শাক "ol shaak".

In Tonga, where it is known as teve, it is viewed as the most inferior of all yam species, and is only eaten if nothing else is available.

As medicine[edit]

The Elephant-foot yam is widely used in Indian medicine, although the plant has no known medical effectiveness. It is recommended as a remedy in the Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems.[5] The corm is prescribed for bronchitis, asthma, abdominal pain, emesis, dysentery, enlargement of spleen, piles, elephantiasis, diseases due to vitiated blood, and rheumatic swellings.

Along with other therapeutic applications, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India indicates the use of corm in prostatic hyperplasia. (The corm is irritant due to the presence of calcium oxalate. It can be consumed after it is washed well and boiled in tamarind water or butter milk.) The corm contains an active diastatic enzyme amylase, betulinic acid, tricontane, lupeol, stigmasterol, betasitosterol and its palmitate and glucose, galactose, rhamnose and xylose.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Nicolson, Dan Henry (1977). "Nomina conservanda proposita - Amorphophallus (Proposal to change the typification of 723 Amorphophallus, nom. cons. (Araceae))". Taxon 26: 337–338. 
  2. ^ a b Quattrocchi, Umberto (2012). CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology, Volume 1 A–B. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press (Taylor & Francis). p. 253. ISBN 978-1-4398-9442-2. 
  3. ^ "Amorphophallus paeoniifolius". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  4. ^ "Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson - whitespot giant arum". Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 
  5. ^ Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary. Berlin: Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387-70637-5. 


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