The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Breedlove, D.E. 1986. Flora de Chiapas. Listados Floríst. México 4: i–v, 1–246.
  • Correa A., M.D., C. Galdames & M. Stapf. 2004. Cat. Pl. Vasc. Panamá 1–599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flora Caroliniana, secundum . . . 87. 1788. (Fl. Carol.)
  • Funk, V. A., P. E. Berry, S. Alexander, T. H. Hollowell & C. L. Kelloff. 2007. Checklist of the Plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55: 1–584.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Sympetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 3. 596 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York.
  • Godfrey, R. K. & J. W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic Wetland Pl. S.E. U.S. Dicot. 1–944. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hickman, J. C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Hokche, O., P. E. Berry & O. Huber. (eds.) 2008. Nuevo Cat. Fl. Vasc. Venez. 1–860. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, Caracas.
  • Isoneotype: Walter, T. Fl. Caroliniana. 87.; Ward, D. B. 2008. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas. 2 (1): 476.
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1941. Rhodora. 43: 646.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Cat. Vasc. Pl. Ecuador, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Miss. Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Long, R. W. & O. K. Lakela. 1971. Fl. Trop. Florida i–xvii, 1–962. University of Miami Press, Coral Cables.
  • Lorence, D. H. 1999. A nomenclator of Mexican and Central American Rubiaceae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 1–177.
  • Macbride, J. F. 1936. Rubiaceae, Flora of Peru. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(6/1): 3–261.
  • Molina Rosito, A. 1975. Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1–118.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Reyes-García, A. & M. Sousa Sánchez. 1997. Depresión central de Chiapas. La selva baja caducifolia. Listados Floríst. México 17: 1–41.
  • Rhodora 39: 307, pl. 469, f. 4. 1937. (Rhodora)
  • Rhodora 39: 307, pl. 469, f.2–3. 1937. (Rhodora)
  • Rhodora 39: 307, pl. 469, f.5–6. 1937. (Rhodora)
  • Rhodora 43: 646. 1941. (Rhodora)
  • Shreve, F. & I. L. Wiggins. 1964. Veg. Fl. Sonoran Des. 2 vols. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Small. 1913. In: Fl. Lancaster Co. : 271
  • Standley, P. C. & L. O. Williams. 1975. Rubiaceae. 24(11): 1–274. In P. C. Standley & L. O. Williams (eds.) Fl. Guatemala, Part XI, Fieldiana, Bot. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
  • Stevens, W. D., C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: i–xlii,.
  • Steyermark, J. A. 1995. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana Project.
  • Thornhill, Robert, Krings, Alexander, Lindbo, David, Stucky, Jon (2014): Guide to the Vascular Flora of the Savannas and Flatwoods of Shaken Creek Preserve and Vicinity (Pender & Onslow Counties, North Carolina, U. S. A.). Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1099: 1099-1099, URL:
  • Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Inst. of Science, Ann Arbor.


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