Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Grasslands
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb Distribution notes: Exotic
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Description

This native annual plant is ½–1' and unbranched, except near the base. The green or reddish stems become bluntly 4-angled toward the top, and have a tendency to sprawl. Depending on the variety, the stems are slightly pubescent to quite hairy. Opposite leaves occur at intervals along the stems, and are sessile. They are up to 1½" long and ¼" across, and narrowly lanceolate to linear in shape. There is a prominent central vein, while the slightly ciliate margins are quite smooth. One or two axillary flowers occur above the upper leaves near the stems. These flowers are light purple, lavender, or nearly white. Each tubular flower is about 1/6" long, and has 4 spreading lobes, 4 white stamens, and an undivided stigma that is white and knobby at the end. The green calyx divides into 5 triangular lobes that are much shorter than the corolla. The blooming period occurs from mid-summer to early fall, and lasts about 1-2 months. There is no noticeable floral scent. Each flower is replaced by a rounded 2-celled fruit about 1/8" long that is broader at the top than the bottom. This fruit looks like a swollen button and is green and shiny, eventually turning brown. The hairiness of the fruit depends on the variety of the species. Each cell contains a single seed. Seed distribution is rather limited, unless animals facilitate their dispersion in some manner. A distinctive characteristic of this plant is the presence of rather long bristles near the flowers and fruit at the base of the leaves. The root system consists of a slender white taproot with secondary feed roots. This plant often forms colonies by re-seeding itself.
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Comments

This little plant is not particularly showy and is easily overlooked. It resembles some of the other buttonweeds, but it has more narrow leaves and prefers to grow in drier, sunnier places. Rough Buttonweed differs from Diodia virginica (Smooth Buttonweed) by having shorter flowers that are often tinged with purple. It also has an undivided style that is knobby (i.e., capitate), while Smooth Buttonweed has a slender divided style. Other common names for Rough Buttonweed are 'Poorjoe' and 'Poverty Weed.' These are primarily southern names, which reflect this plant's preference for poor soil. The other variety of Rough Buttonweed is Diodia teres setifera. This latter variety is a hairier plant that occurs only in southern Illinois.
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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"Kerala: Alapuzha, Kollam"
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"
Global Distribution

Topical America and Africa

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Alappuzha, Thrissur, Kollam

"
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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Rough Buttonweed occurs occasionally in the southern half of Illinois, and a few counties in the northern half, where it is probably adventive. Habitats include dry upland areas of prairies where there is sparse vegetation, hill prairies, sand prairies, glades, gravelly borders of lakes, pathways with compacted soil, and gravelly areas along roadsides and railroads (including the railroad ballast). This plant is more likely to occur in disturbed areas, and tends to be more common in the southern counties of the state. It is regarded as a common weed in the southern states, but is less ubiquitous in Illinois.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia teres var. angustata A. Gray:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia prostrata var. longiseta DC.:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia teres fo. latior Steyerm.:
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia teres var. prostrata :
Venezuela (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia teres subsp. prostrata (Sw.) Steyerm.:
Venezuela (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodella teres (Walter) Small:
Brazil (South America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia teres var. teres :
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia teres var. oblongifolia Fernald:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia teres var. hirsutior Fernald & Griscom:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia prostrata Sw.:
Venezuela (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia teres var. setifera Fernald & Griscom:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia teres var. hystricina Fernald & Griscom:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia teres subsp. angustata (A. Gray) Steyerm.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diodia teres Walter:
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Colombia (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Ecuador (South America)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
French Guiana (South America)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Guyana (South America)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Japan (Asia)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)
Nicaragua (Mesoamerica)
North Korea (Asia)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Peru (South America)
South Korea (Asia)
Suriname (South America)
United States (North America)
Venezuela (South America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Erect branched herbs; stem terete and woody at base, younger parts 4-angled. Leaves sessile, 2-4 x 0.3-1 cm, narrowly elliptic, oblong to linear-lanceolate, base attenuate, margins revolute, apex acute and setaceous hispid and white punctate on both surfaces, lateral veins 4-5 pairs; stipules connate like a sheath, to 2 mm long, hispid without, apex truncate with 4-7 mm long hairy setae. Flowers sessile, axillary, congested in the stipular sheath. Calyx densely hispid; lobes 4, c. 1.5 mm long. Corolla pink; tube c. 3 mm long, campanulate; lobes 4, oblong-acute, hispid without. Stamens 4, inserted near the throat. Stigma flat, broad, bilobed. Fruits c. 3 mm long, turbinate, densely hispid, splitting into two indehiscent mericarps. Seeds reticulate, reddish brown."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Type Information

Isoneotype for Diodia teres Walter
Catalog Number: US 1838313
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: ; Status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): R. K. Godfrey & R. M. Tryon
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Old field, Georgetown., Georgetown, South Carolina, United States, North America
  • Isoneotype: Walter, T. Fl. Caroliniana. 87.; Ward, D. B. 2008. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas. 2 (1): 476.
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Isotype for Diodia teres var. oblongifolia Fernald
Catalog Number: US 1971280
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. L. Fernald & B. H. Long
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: S of Lee's Mill., Isle Of Wight, Virginia, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1941. Rhodora. 43: 646.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Wasteland and scrub jungles in laterite hillocks
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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Rough Buttonweed occurs occasionally in the southern half of Illinois, and a few counties in the northern half, where it is probably adventive. Habitats include dry upland areas of prairies where there is sparse vegetation, hill prairies, sand prairies, glades, gravelly borders of lakes, pathways with compacted soil, and gravelly areas along roadsides and railroads (including the railroad ballast). This plant is more likely to occur in disturbed areas, and tends to be more common in the southern counties of the state. It is regarded as a common weed in the southern states, but is less ubiquitous in Illinois.
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Depth range based on 8 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Faunal Associations

Limited information is available about this plant's relationships to various fauna. The nectar and pollen of the flowers probably attract small bees and flower flies. It has been reported by Tietz (1972) that the caterpillars of Xylophanes tersa (Tersa Sphinx) feed on this plant. This moth also has a southern distribution, but migrates to the northern states during the summer. The Greater Prairie Chicken eats the fruit capsules, and possibly other gamebirds as well.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: October-January
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diodia teres

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun, dry conditions, and poor soil containing an abundance of sand, gravel, or compacted clay. This plant will also tolerate partial sun and moister conditions with fertile soil, in which case it will be displaced by taller plants. It doesn't appear to have many problems with disease, and is quite drought tolerant.
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Wikipedia

Diodella teres

Diodia teres [formerly Diodella] formerly is a species of flowering plant in the coffee family known by the common name poorjoe. This annual plant is found throughout the southern half of North America as well as much of the northeastern United States. It has a thin, erect stem rarely approaching half a meter in height. It has oppositely arranged leaves which are stiff, dark green, pointed, and roughly-textured. Each pair of leaves cradles a flower at its base. The small white to pink flower has four stiff petal-like lobes. The fruit is a pair of hairy nutlets. This plant is most common in sandy areas such as desert dunes and river floodplains.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The most common variety of this widespread species. LEM 1Jan01.

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