Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This herbaceous plant is a summer annual that has stems about ½–1' long. These stems are usually erect or ascending, although sometimes they sprawl across the ground. The stems are unbranched or sparingly branched, light green to red, bluntly 4-angled (at least above), and short-pubescent (var. teres) to hairy (var. setifera). Pairs of opposite leaves occur along the entire length of each stem. These leaves are up to 1½" long and ¼" across; they are linear, linear-lanceolate, or linear-oblong in shape, entire (toothless) and involute (rolled downward) along their margins, and sessile with prominent central veins. The upper leaf surface is medium green and appressed short-pubescent to glabrous, while the lower leaf surface is slightly more pale and short-pubescent primarily along the central vein. The leaf bases along each stem are joined with merged stipules that form shallow cup-like structures. The exterior of these stipules is green to whitish green and sparsely short-pubescent to hairy. Along the upper rim of each pair of merged stipules, there are long erect bristles up to ½" long; these bristles are light green, white, or red. Either solitary or small clusters of 2-3 flowers are produced from the axils of the middle to upper leaves. Each flower is up to ¼" long, consisting of a tubular-funnelform corolla with 4 spreading lobes, 4 green sepals that are lanceolate in shape, 4 stamens with pale yellow to white anthers, and an inferior ovary with a single white style. The corolla is lilac, pink, or white; its exterior is often finely short-hairy. The sepals are sparsely short-pubescent to hairy; they are shorter than the corolla. The style has a knobby (capitate) tip. Both the stamens and style are included or only slightly exserted from the corolla. The blooming period occurs from mid-summer to early autumn, lasting about 1-2 months. There is no noticeable floral scent. Afterwards, the flowers are replaced by dry fruits (schizocarps) that are obovoid in shape with remnants of the persistent sepals at their apices. Immature fruits are green, while mature fruits are brown. These fruits are sparsely short-pubescent (var. teres) to hairy (var. setifera); their fine hairs are straight and ascending. Eventually, these fruits divide into 2 nutlets each. The nutlets are about 3 mm. (1/8") long, half-obovoid in shape, brown, and more or less covered with persistent fine hairs. The root system consists of a slender taproot with secondary feeder roots. This plant often forms colonies by reseeding itself.
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Grasslands
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Rough Buttonweed occurs occasionally in the southern half of Illinois, where it is native, and a few counties in the northern half, where it is probably adventive. Illinois lies along the northern range limit of this species. Habitats include upland prairies where there is sparse vegetation, hill prairies, sand prairies, rocky glades, gravel bars along rivers, pathways with compacted soil, gravelly areas along roadsides, gravelly areas along railroads, and barren waste ground. Areas with a history of disturbance are preferred. Rough Buttonweed is regarded as a common weed in the southern states, but it is less ubiquitous in Illinois.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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"Kerala: Alapuzha, Kollam"
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"
Global Distribution

Topical America and Africa

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Alappuzha, Thrissur, Kollam

"
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Erect branched herbs; stem terete and woody at base, younger parts 4-angled. Leaves sessile, 2-4 x 0.3-1 cm, narrowly elliptic, oblong to linear-lanceolate, base attenuate, margins revolute, apex acute and setaceous hispid and white punctate on both surfaces, lateral veins 4-5 pairs; stipules connate like a sheath, to 2 mm long, hispid without, apex truncate with 4-7 mm long hairy setae. Flowers sessile, axillary, congested in the stipular sheath. Calyx densely hispid; lobes 4, c. 1.5 mm long. Corolla pink; tube c. 3 mm long, campanulate; lobes 4, oblong-acute, hispid without. Stamens 4, inserted near the throat. Stigma flat, broad, bilobed. Fruits c. 3 mm long, turbinate, densely hispid, splitting into two indehiscent mericarps. Seeds reticulate, reddish brown."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Type Information

Isoneotype for Diodia teres Walter
Catalog Number: US 1838313
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: ; Status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): R. K. Godfrey & R. M. Tryon
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Old field, Georgetown., Georgetown, South Carolina, United States, North America
  • Isoneotype: Walter, T. Fl. Caroliniana. 87.; Ward, D. B. 2008. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas. 2 (1): 476.
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Isotype for Diodia teres var. oblongifolia Fernald
Catalog Number: US 1971280
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. L. Fernald & B. H. Long
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: S of Lee's Mill., Isle Of Wight, Virginia, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1941. Rhodora. 43: 646.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Rough Buttonweed occurs occasionally in the southern half of Illinois, where it is native, and a few counties in the northern half, where it is probably adventive. Illinois lies along the northern range limit of this species. Habitats include upland prairies where there is sparse vegetation, hill prairies, sand prairies, rocky glades, gravel bars along rivers, pathways with compacted soil, gravelly areas along roadsides, gravelly areas along railroads, and barren waste ground. Areas with a history of disturbance are preferred. Rough Buttonweed is regarded as a common weed in the southern states, but it is less ubiquitous in Illinois.
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General Habitat

Wasteland and scrub jungles in laterite hillocks
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Depth range based on 8 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Faunal Associations

Limited information is available about this plant's relationships to various fauna. The nectar and pollen of the flowers probably attract small bees and flower flies (Syrphidae). It has been reported by Tietz (1972) that caterpillars of the Tersa Sphinx (Xylophanes tersa) feed on Rough Buttonweed. This moth has a southern distribution, but it is a strong flyer that migrates to the northern states during the summer. Another insect that feeds on this plant is a flea beetle, Strabala rufa (Clark et al., 2004). This flea beetle has a brownish orange to red carapace. The Greater Prairie Chicken eats the seeds, and possibly other gamebirds feed on them as well.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: October-January
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diodia teres

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun, dry conditions, and poor soil containing an abundance of sand, gravel, or compacted clay. This plant will also tolerate partial sun and moister conditions with fertile soil, in which case it will be displaced by taller plants eventually. Drought tolerance is quite good because of the long taproot.
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Wikipedia

Diodella teres

Diodella teres is a species of flowering plant in the coffee family known by the common name poorjoe. This annual plant is native to Mexico, Central America, South America, the West Indies and the southern of the United States from California to Florida as well as much of the central and northeastern United States from Kansas to Michigan to Massachusetts.[1] The species is also naturalized in the Netherlands, the Canary Islands, Western Africa, Angola, China, Japan and Korea,[2] India, and Madagascar.[3]


Diodella teres has a thin, erect or prostrate stem rarely up to 65 cm in height. It has opposite leaves which are stiff, dark green, elliptical, pointed, and roughly-textured, up to 3 cm long. Each pair of leaves cradles a flower at its base. The small white to pinkish-purple flower has four stiff petal-like lobes up to 12 mm long and 10 mm wide. The fruit is ellipsoid, splitting into two nutlets This plant is most common in sandy areas such as desert dunes and river floodplains.[4][2]


References[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The most common variety of this widespread species. LEM 1Jan01.

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