Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Coastal areas
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Africa, Australia, naturalized in New World tropics.

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"Maharashtra: Pune, Ratnagiri, Thane Karnataka: N. Kanara, S. Kanara Kerala: Alapuzha, Kannur, Kasaragod, Kottayam, Kozhikode, Malapuram, Thiruvananthapuram Tamil Nadu: Ramanathapuram"
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"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia to Australia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Kottayam, Alappuzha, Kasaragode, Kannur, Thiruvananthapuram, Malappuram, Kozhikkode, Ernakulam, Thrissur

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Evergreen shrubs or small crooked trees, 3-8 m high; bark greyish or yellowish- brown, shallowly fissured, glabrous; branchlets quandrangular. Leaves simple, opposite, 12-50 x 5-17 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, entire, acute to shortly acuminate to apex, cuneate at base, pinnately nerved, glabrous; petioles 0.5-2.5 cm long; stipules variable in size and shape, broadly triangular. Flowers bisexual, fragrant, in dense globose heads, connate by the calyces, peduncle 1-4 cm long, opposite to normally developed leaves. Calyx tube hemispheric, limb truncate. Corolla funnel-shaped, up to 1.5 cm long, lobes 5 lanceolate, acute. Stamens 5, inserted on the mouth of the corolla; filaments hairy. Ovary 2-celled, ovule solitary; stigma bilobed. Fruit an ovoid syncarp of pyramidal, 2-seeded drupes, 3-10 cm x 2-3 cm, yellow-white; seeds black, with hard albumen and distinct air chamber."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Open places near the sea, cultivated inland at 0-600 feet.

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General Habitat

Waste places and mangrove forests
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: July-November
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Morinda citrifolia var. bracteata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Barcode data: Morinda citrifolia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Morinda citrifolia var. bracteata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Morinda citrifolia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Reasons: Native of tropical Asia and Australia. Cultivated and in part naturalized through West Indies from Cuba and Jamaica to Barbados and Trinidad. Rarely planted at Key West, Florida, and grown also in Guianas. Sometimes grown for ornament in Puerto Rico; also planted or naturalized along sandy coasts of the island (Little, 1964).

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Morinda citrifolia

"Noni" redirects here. For other uses, see Noni (disambiguation).

Morinda citrifolia is a tree in the coffee family, Rubiaceae. Its native range extends through Southeast Asia and Australasia, and the species is now cultivated throughout the tropics and widely naturalised.[1]

English common names include great morinda,[2] Indian mulberry, noni,[2] beach mulberry, and cheese fruit.[2]

Growing habitats[edit]

M. citrifolia flower

M. citrifolia grows in shady forests, as well as on open rocky or sandy shores. It reaches maturity in about 18 months, then yields between 4 and 8 kg (8.8 and 17.6 lb) of fruit every month throughout the year. It is tolerant of saline soils, drought conditions, and secondary soils. It is therefore found in a wide variety of habitats: volcanic terrains, lava-strewn coasts, and clearings or limestone outcrops, as well as in coralline atolls.[3] It can grow up to 9 m (30 ft) tall, and has large, simple, dark green, shiny and deeply veined leaves.

The plant bears flowers and fruits all year round. The fruit is a multiple fruit that has a pungent odour when ripening, and is hence also known as cheese fruit or even vomit fruit. It is oval in shape and reaches 10–18 centimetres (3.9–7.1 in) size. At first green, the fruit turns yellow then almost white as it ripens. It contains many seeds. It is sometimes called starvation fruit. Despite its strong smell and bitter taste, the fruit is nevertheless eaten as a famine food[4] and, in some Pacific islands, even a staple food, either raw or cooked.[5] Southeast Asians and Australian Aborigines consume the fruit raw with salt[6] or cook it with curry. The seeds are edible when roasted.

M. citrifolia is especially attractive to weaver ants, which make nests from the leaves of the tree. These ants protect the plant from some plant-parasitic insects. The smell of the fruit also attracts fruit bats, which aid in dispersing the seeds. A type of fruit fly, Drosophila sechellia, feeds exclusively on these fruits.[7]

Nutrients and phytochemicals[edit]

M. citrifolia fruit in Honolulu

M. citrifolia fruit powder contains carbohydrates and dietary fibre in moderate amounts.[8] These macronutrients evidently reside in the fruit pulp, as M. citrifolia juice has sparse nutrient content.[9] The main micronutrients of M. citrifolia pulp powder include vitamin C, niacin (vitamin B3), iron and potassium.[8] Vitamin A, calcium and sodium are present in moderate amounts. When M. citrifolia juice alone is analyzed and compared to pulp powder, only vitamin C is retained[9] in an amount that is about half the content of a raw navel orange.[10] Sodium levels in M. citrifolia juice (about 3% of Dietary Reference Intake, DRI)[8] are high compared to an orange, and potassium content is moderate. The juice is otherwise similar in micronutrient content to a raw orange.[10]

M. citrifolia fruit contains a number of phytochemicals, including lignans, oligo- and polysaccharides, flavonoids, iridoids, fatty acids, scopoletin, catechin, beta-sitosterol, damnacanthal, and alkaloids. Although these substances have been studied for bioactivity, current research is insufficient to conclude anything about their effects on human health.[11][12][13][14][15] These phytochemicals are not unique to M. citrifolia, as they exist in various plants.

Gastronomic uses[edit]

In Thai cuisine, the leaves (known as bai-yo, ใบยอ) are used as a green vegetable and the fruit (luk-yo, ลูกยอ) is added as a salad ingredient to some versions of somtam.

Traditional medicine[edit]

The green fruit, leaves, and root/rhizomes were traditionally used in Polynesian cultures to treat menstrual cramps, bowel irregularities, diabetes, liver diseases, and urinary tract infections.[16]

Consumer uses[edit]

Morinda bark produces a brownish-purplish dye that may be used for making batik. In Hawaii, yellowish dye is extracted from its roots to dye cloth.[17]

There have been recent applications for the use of M. citrifolia seed oil[18] which contains linoleic acid, possibly useful when applied topically to skin, e.g., for anti-inflammation, acne reduction, or moisture retention.[19][20][21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nelson, SC (2006-04-01). "Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry: Morinda citrifolia (noni)". Traditional Tree Initiative. 
  2. ^ a b c Plants by Common Name – James Cook University
  3. ^ Xavier Romero-Frias, The Maldive Islanders, A Study of the Popular Culture of an Ancient Ocean Kingdom, Barcelona 1999, ISBN 84-7254-801-5
  4. ^ Krauss, BH (1993). Plants in Hawaiian Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. [page needed]
  5. ^ Morton, Julia F. (1992). "The ocean-going noni, or Indian Mulberry (Morinda citrifolia, Rubiaceae) and some of its "colorful" relatives". Economic Botany 46 (3): 241–56. doi:10.1007/BF02866623. 
  6. ^ Cribb, A.B. & Cribb, J.W. (1975) Wild Food in Australia. Sydney: Collins.[page needed]
  7. ^ Jones, C.D. (1998). "The Genetic Basis of Drosophila sechellia‍'s Resistance to a Host Plant Toxin". Genetics 149 (4): 1899–1908. 
  8. ^ a b c Nelson, Scot C. (2006) "Nutritional Analysis of Hawaiian Noni (Noni Fruit Powder)" The Noni Website. Retrieved 15-06-2009.
  9. ^ a b Nelson, Scot C. (2006) "Nutritional Analysis of Hawaiian Noni (Pure Noni Fruit Juice)" The Noni Website. Retrieved 15-06-2009.
  10. ^ a b World's Healthiest Foods, in-depth nutrient analysis of a raw orange
  11. ^ Saleem, Muhammad; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Lee, Yong Sup (2005). "An update on bioactive plant lignans". Natural Product Reports 22 (6): 696. doi:10.1039/b514045p. PMID 16311631. 
  12. ^ Deng, Shixin; Palu, ‘Afa K.; West, Brett J.; Su, Chen X.; Zhou, Bing-Nan; Jensen, Jarakae C. (2007). "Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Constituents of the Fruits of Noni (Morindacitrifolia) Collected in Tahiti". Journal of Natural Products 70 (5): 859–62. doi:10.1021/np0605539. PMID 17378609. 
  13. ^ Lin, Chwan Fwu; Ni, Ching Li; Huang, Yu Ling; Sheu, Shuenn Jyi; Chen, Chien Chih (2007). "Lignans and anthraquinones from the fruits ofMorinda citrifolia". Natural Product Research 21 (13): 1199–204. doi:10.1080/14786410601132451. PMID 17987501. 
  14. ^ Levand, Oscar; Larson, Harold (2009). "Some Chemical Constituents of Morinda citrifolia". Planta Medica 36 (06): 186–7. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1097264. 
  15. ^ Mohd Zin, Z.; Abdul Hamid, A.; Osman, A.; Saari, N.; Misran, A. (2007). "Isolation and Identification of Antioxidative Compound from Fruit of Mengkudu (Morinda citrifoliaL.)". International Journal of Food Properties 10 (2): 363–73. doi:10.1080/10942910601052723. 
  16. ^ Wang MY, West BJ, Jensen CJ, Nowicki D, Su C, Palu AK, Anderson G (2002). "Morinda citrifolia (Noni): a literature review and recent advances in Noni research". Pharmacol Sin 23 (12): 1127–41. PMID 12466051. 
  17. ^ Thompson, RH (1971). Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones. New York: Academic Press. [page needed]
  18. ^ West, Brett J.; Jarakae Jensen, Claude; Westendorf, Johannes (2008). "A new vegetable oil from noni (Morinda citrifolia) seeds". International Journal of Food Science & Technology 43 (11): 1988–92. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01802.x. 
  19. ^ Diezel, W.E.; Schulz, E.; Skanks, M.; Heise, H. (1993). "Plant oils: Topical application and anti-inflammatory effects (croton oil test)". Dermatologische Monatsschrift 179: 173. 
  20. ^ Letawe, C; Boone, M; Pierard, GE (1998). "Digital image analysis of the effect of topically applied linoleic acid on acne microcomedones". Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 23 (2): 56–8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2230.1998.00315.x. PMID 9692305. 
  21. ^ Darmstadt, GL; Mao-Qiang, M; Chi, E; Saha, SK; Ziboh, VA; Black, RE; Santosham, M; Elias, PM (2007). "Impact of topical oils on the skin barrier: possible implications for neonatal health in developing countries". Acta Paediatrica 91 (5): 546–54. doi:10.1080/080352502753711678. PMID 12113324. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Elevitch, Craig R.; Nelson, Scot C. (August 2006). Noni: The Complete Guide for Consumers and Growers. Permanent Agriculture Resources. p. 112. ISBN 0-9702544-6-6. 
  • Kamiya, Kohei; Tanaka, Yohei; Endang, Hanani; Umar, Mansur; Satake, Toshiko (2004). "Chemical Constituents of Morinda citrifolia Fruits Inhibit Copper-Induced Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52 (19): 5843–8. doi:10.1021/jf040114k. PMID 15366830. 
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Morinda tinctoria

Morinda tinctoria, commonly known as Aal or Indian Mulberry (though these common names also refer to Morinda citrifolia), is a species of flowering plant in the family Rubiaceae, native to southern Asia.

It is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 5-10 m tall. The leaves are 15-25 cm long, oblong to lanceolate. The flowers are tubular, white, scented, about 2 cm long. The fruit is a green syncarp, 2-2.5 cm diameter.

The plant is extensively cultivated in India in order to make the morindone dye sold under the trade name "Suranji". Morindone is used for the dyeing of cotton, silk and wool in shades of red, chocolate or purple. The colouring matter is found principally in the root bark and is collected when the plants reach three to four years of age. If the trees are allowed to mature then hardly any colouring substance remains. The small roots yield the most dye and those above about 1 cm diameter are discarded. The active substance is extracted as the glucoside known as morindin that upon hydrolysis produces the dye. Morindone is a mordant dye giving a yellowish-red colour with an aluminium mordant, chocolate with a chromium mordant, and dull purple to black with an iron mordant.

Morindin is also present in Morinda umbellata but not in Morinda longiflora, a native of West Africa. Although imported into Britain and applied to wool and cotton, the dye did not find commercial success.

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