Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Endemic to Madagascar. Common species of the east coast and occasionally along rivers in the lowland, mainly between Mahanoro to Antalaha area but also recorded in Daraina and Farafangana.
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introduced; Fla.; native, Africa (native to Madagascar).
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Distribution: Distributed in Madagascar. Planted in Pakistan, here recorded for the first time.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Leaves 2--2.5 m; segments 60--70 cm, strongly ascending. Fruits yellow, ellipsoid, 2.0--2.5 cm; yellow; apex acute; stigmatic scar basal. 2n = 32.
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Description

Stem 2-5 m tall, 10-15 cm in diameter, smooth, grey, cylindrical with a basal mass of stemless rosettes. Leaves green, long, segments almost opposite, equally spaced, rachis yellow; leaflets c. 60 cm long and 2-2.5 cm broad. Crown shaft swollen, yellow-green covered with caducous whitish wax and scales. Inflorescence arching, c. 30 cm long, highly branched, main stalk arising from a tubular bract. Flowers crowded, male flower: sepals 3, petals 3, stamens free, exserted, c. 4 mm long, anthers 2-celled, dorsifixed; pistillode much shorter than stamens. Female flowers small, c. 3 mm in diameter; sepals 3; petals 3, coriaceous. Fruit baccate, dark yellow turning black, c. 1.5 cm long.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Chrysalidocarpus lutescens H. Wendland, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 36: 117. 1878
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species occurs mainly in swampy areas along the white sand dunes in the littoral of the Indian Ocean but it may be also found on alluvium at much higher elevations (up to 300 m) in Mananara Avaratra, Makira and Daraina.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Moist organic soil over limestone in mesic hammocks and disturbed wooded areas; 0--10m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring-- through summer.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: May Fr. Per.: June-July.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dypsis lutescens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dypsis lutescens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chrysalidocarpus lutescens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Rakotoarinivo, M. & Dransfield, J.

Reviewer/s
Baker, W.J., Beentje, H.J. & Bachman, S., Baker, W.J. & Beentje, H.J.

Contributor/s

Justification
Widespread in the littoral area of the east coast where thousands of individuals may form thick tufts along the dunes or in swampy areas but this species is among the most popular in cultivation and many individuals are frequently harvested from the wild. Almost qualifies for a threatened listing under criterion B2ab(iii,v), but the number of locations is well above ten and the population is not severely fragmented.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Population

Population
Abundant and frequent species where it occurs. There is evidence of some decline.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The main threats to this species are habitat loss from expanding agriculture and harvesting of plants from the wild to supply the local horticultural markets.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Protected in Masoala and Mananara Avaratra protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Dypsis lutescens

Dypsis lutescens, also known as bamboo palm, golden cane palm, areca palm,[2] yellow palm,[2] or butterfly palm,[2] is a species of flowering plant in the Arecaceae family, native to Madagascar and naturalized in the Andaman Islands, Réunion, El Salvador, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, the Leeward Islands and the Venezuelan Antilles.[1][2]

Description[edit]

Dypsis lutescens grows 6–12 m (20–39 ft) in height. Multiple stems emerge from the base. The leaves are arched, 2–3 m (6 ft 7 in–9 ft 10 in) long, and pinnate, with 40-60 pairs of leaflets. It bears panicles of yellow flowers in summer. Offsets can be cut off when mature enough, as a propagation method.

It is grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in tropical and subtropical regions, and elsewhere indoors as a houseplant. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[3]

One of several common names, "butterfly palm" refers to the leaves which curve upwards in multiple stems to create a butterfly look.[4]

Chrysalidocarpus lutescens (Dypsis lutescens).jpg

In its introduced range, this plant acts as a supplier of fruit to some bird species which feed on it opportunistically, such as Pitangus sulphuratus, Coereba flaveola and Thraupis sayaca species in Brazil.[5]

Air quality[edit]

According to NASA and Dr. B. C. Wolverton, the areca palm filters xylene and toluene from the air. Wolverton also specifies that, at 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) in height, the plant will transpire 1 liter of water per 24 hours, thereby making it an effective humidifier.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b WCSP, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Dypsis lutescens
  2. ^ a b c d United States Department of Agriculture. "Dypsis lutescens information from NPGS/GRIN". USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-12-25. 
  3. ^ "Dypsis lutescens". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  4. ^ "Real Palm Trees". Palm Tree General Description. 
  5. ^ Leonardo Barros Ribeiro & Melisa Gogliath Silva. "Comportamento alimentar das aves Pitangus sulphuratus, Coereba flaveola e Thraupis sayaca em palmeiras frutificadas em área urbana" (in Portuguese). 
  6. ^ "How to Grow Your Own Fresh Air" using Areca Palm (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens) (TED talk)
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Notes

Comments

This species is a commonly cultivated ornamental palm in Florida, where it has escaped and sporadically naturalized in Dade County.
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