Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Plants 15-25 cm tall, with a slender, creeping rhizome. Stem erect, pubescent and glandular hairy, with several sheaths at base and 2 or rarely 3 leaves above. Leaves subopposite or occasionally alternate, at or above middle of plant; blade often turning black or blackish when dried, elliptic, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 5-12 cm long, 2.5-4.5 cm wide, abaxial veins sparsely pubescent or subglabrous, apex acute or acuminate. Inflorescence terminal, with 1 flower; peduncle densely pubescent and glandular hairy; floral bracts foliaceous, ovate-lanceolate, usually 1.5-3 cm, minutely ciliate, apex acute or acuminate; pedicel and ovary 1-1.5 cm, with glandular hairs. Flower white with purplish red or brownish red markings. Dorsal sepal ovate-elliptic or broadly ovate-elliptic, 1.5-2.2 cm long, 1.2-1.6 cm wide, often sparsely puberulent toward abaxial base, apex acute or shortly acuminate; synsepal narrowly elliptic, 1.2-1.8 cm long, 0.5-0.6 cm wide, apex shallowly 2-lobed. Petals often subspatulate or pandurate, 1.3-1.8 cm long, 0.5-0.7 cm wide, hairy toward adaxial base, apex often slightly dilated and rounded; lip deeply pouched, pitcher-shaped, ca. 1.5 cm long, 1.5 cm wide, lacking an incurved apical margin, with a broad mouth, inner bottom hairy. Staminode ovate-elliptic, 4-5 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide, abaxially broadly keeled, adaxially minutely longitudinally ridged, apex emarginate or subtruncate. Capsule pendent, nearly narrowly ellipsoid, ca. 2.5 cm long, 8-10 mm wide, puberulent.
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Distribution

Range Description

Cypripedium guttatum is a circumpolar species found in Europe, Asia and North America. The species ranges in Northwest Territories, Yukon to Alaska and the Aleutians and from White Russia in the west to Japan, China (Hebei, Heilogjiang, Jilin, Lioning, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xizang and NW Yunnan), Manchuria, Bhutan and Siberia in the east and south to the Himalayas.

In Europe, the species distribution encompasses central, eastern and northeastern parts of European Russia. This species was noted to occur in Belarus and Ukraine, although Averyanov (1999) considered this doubtful. (Averyanov 1999).

The species can be found from 500 m to 4,100 m altitude.

Sources: Cribb 1997, Delforge 1995, Frosch and Cribb 2012, Kartesz 1994, Luer 1975, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008.

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Next to C. calceolus and its variety pubescens, C. guttatum is the most widely distributed of our native Cypripediums. Found in Northwest Territories, Yukon to Alaska and the Aleutians, also Japan, China, Manchuria, Siberia to Central Russia (Luer).

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N.W.T., Yukon; Alaska; Asia.
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Cypripedium guttatum is occurring in Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, NW Yunnan of China, Bhutan, Korea, Russia (Siberia), Europe, North America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants erect, 12–35 cm. Leaves 2 (–3,very rarely), on middle half of stem, alternate to subopposite, wide-spreading; blade lance-ovate to ovate-suborbiculate, 5–15 × 1.5–8 cm. Flowers solitary, erect; sepals white with pink to reddish or magenta markings; dorsal sepal ovate- to suborbiculate-elliptic, 12–28 × 6–19 mm; lateral sepals connate, synsepal 12–21 × 3–8 mm; petals spreading, same color as sepals, lanceolate-subpandurate (constricted near apex), flat, 10–20 × 4–9 mm, slightly shorter than to equaling lip, margins undulate-revolute to slightly spiraled; lip similarly colored, subglobose to obovoid, 15–30 mm; orifice basal, 10–24 mm; staminode oblong-quadrangular to broadly ellipsoid or ovoid. 2n = 20, 20.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

Cypripedium guttatum grows in a wide range of habitats and prefers moist, acidic to neutral substrates or wet swampy soil, but can still grow on rocky substrates and sandy soils. The species occurs in sparse broad-leaved, mixed, and coniferous forests, amidst shrubs, in clearing and edges of the forests, along ravines and mountain meadows. It is also found in waterlogged forests, transitory swamps, forested limestone slopes, sand screes, birch forests, open grasslands, woodlands and often associated with C. macronthos. Cypripedium guttatum prefers mid-shade to shade and flowers from the beginning of May to July (Averyanov 1999, Delforge 1995, Cribb 1997, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Comments: Meadows, grassy moors, grasslands or on lwr. slopes of hills & mnts., sometimes in open wds. in assc. w/birches & Cornus.

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Moist to dry open deciduous and spruce forest, tundra, meadows, scree; 0--800m.
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Growing in forests, thickets, grasslands; 500-4000 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Jun--Jul.
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Flowering from May to July; fruiting from August to September.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

The chromosomal number of Cypripedium guttatum is 2n = 20 (Lavrenko et al., 1991; Stepanov, 1994).
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cypripedium guttatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cypripedium guttatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Rankou, H.

Reviewer/s
Fay, M. & Sharma, J.

Contributor/s

Justification
Cypripedium guttatum is local with a very large distribution area and aggregations of various size and numbers. Population are declining in European Russia but stable in North America. From a global view and the wide distribution range (the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of the species are well in excess of 20,000 km2 and 2,000 km2 respectively) the species is at low risk of extinction as the existing threats to the species and its habitats are unlikely to cause the species to decline rapidly in the near future, in particular if the conservation measures suggested are applied. The species is protected in 27 Zapovedniks and national parks in Russia, listed by the U.S. Federal Government in Alaska. C. guttatum is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Frequently cultivated in Asia, common throughout its rather large range.

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Population

Population

Cypripedium guttatum is local and the spatial structure of the population is characterized by aggregations of various size and numbers. The subpopulations include from five to 20 individuals per m² - the overall number is 150 to 250. The large aggregations include up to 500 shoots and the maximum density in the aggregation is 130-150 shoots per m² (Averyanov 1999, Cribb 1997, Delforge 1995, Frosch and Cribb 2012, Kartesz 1994, Luer 1975, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).


Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats

The populations and the distribution area of Cypripedium guttatum have significantly reduced during the last decades especially in European Russia due to numerous anthropogenic threats including the loss of habitat by construction building projects and urbanization. In addition, drought, deforestation, fires, weak recovery and collection for drug production, are causing populations to decline (Averyanov 1999, Delforge 1995, Cribb 1997, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

All orchid species are included under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Cypripedium guttatum is included in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan (Gvozdev 1978), some regional red lists in Russia and it is protected in 27 Zapovedniks and national parks of Russia.

However, the following actions are recommended to protect Cypripedium guttatum;

  • Protection of the habitat, especially open grassland and woodland, from human activities, deforestation and fires
  • Fencing vulnerable sites to protect the species from collection and animals
  • Control and management of the production of Cypripedium drugs
  • Raise public awareness
  • Protection of the living individuals through legislation which bans the species from being picked or dug up
  • Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections
  • Monitoring and surveillance of the existing populations and sites
  • Estimate the population size and study their dynamics
(Averyanov 1999, Cody 2000, Cribb 1997, Delforge 1995, Gvozdev 1978, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).
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Wikipedia

Notes

Comments

Cypripedium guttatum has been reported from British Columbia (D. S. Correll 1950), apparently based on a single collection of C. parviflorum (M. G. Henry 119 GH, PH). See the discussion under 4. C. yatabeanum.
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