Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Cypripedium fasciculatum occurs in broad scattered locations, across eight states in western North America, from north central Washington south through Oregon to central California and east to the mountains of Idaho, Montana, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. The species is found mainly in the Klamath Mountains in the southwest corner of the Oregon State; Wasatch and High Uinta Mountains in Utah; Park and Front Ranges in Colorado; and the Medicine Bow and Park Ranges in Wyoming. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 1,209,800 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 400 km². It occurs between 900 m and 1,400 m asl.

Sources: Brownell and Catling 1987, Camon and Arnett 1991, Coleman 1989, Cribb 1997, Frosch and Cribb 2012, Kartesz 1994, and Luer 1975.

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Washington to central California, and scattered throughout the Rocky Mountains in Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado (Camon and Arnett 1991). It is reported to occur in southern British Columbia but apparently no longer occurs there, or was incorrectly reported as having occurred there (Brownell & Catling 1987).

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Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Utah, Wash., Wyo.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants erect, 6–35 cm in flower, taller in fruit; inflorescences nodding in flower, erect in fruit. Leaves 2, initially near middle of stem, subopposite, wide-spreading, distal portion elongating greatly in fruit; blade elliptic to ovate-orbiculate, 4–12 × 2.5–7.5 cm. Flowers (1–)2–4; sepals dull yellow, marked and suffused often intensely with reddish brown or dark purple; dorsal sepal lanceolate, 13–25 × 3–8 mm; lateral sepals connate, synsepal 11–23 × 4–9 mm; petals porrect-spreading, same color as sepals, flat, ovate-lanceolate to lance-acuminate, 10–23 × 6–17 mm; lip color of sepals, usually less intensely marked, mostly obovoid, 8–14(–25) mm, orifice basal, 4–5 mm; staminode ellipsoid to oblong. 2n = 20.
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Diagnostic Description

Cypripedium fasciculatum is a distinctive orchid which is easily identifiable in flower and fruit. Its leaves appear to be opposite but they are actually subopposite, joined to the stem almost but not exactly in the same spot about midway up the stem. Species in the genus LISTERA resemble this orchid but are much smaller, have prominent hairs, and flowers arranged in an elongate inflorescence.

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Synonym

Cypripedium knightiae A. Nelson
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

Cypripedium fasciculatum has typical habitats that include mature coniferous forest, serpentine seeps and along streambanks but most frequently is found in mixed successional forests, mixed evergreen, mixed conifer, and Douglas-fir forests and in pine and black oak stands. The species prefers shade in dry to cool ultrabasic soils, granitic soils, schist, limestone and quartz-diorite, the habitat includes a rich organic layer that supports microflora as the species is strongly connected with mycorrhizal fungi. Populations have been reported from rocky to loamy soils in damp to dry sites but the species is rare in the swampy ground and on rocky places. The species flowers from April until August.

Sources: Brownell and Catling 1987, Cribb 1997, Frosch and Cribb 2012, Kagan 1990, Kartesz 1994, Rice 1984.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Comments: C. fasciculatum is found on ultrabasic soils, granitics, schists, limestone and quartz-diorite. Populations have been reported from rocky to loamy soils in damp to dry sites. They are found in mixed evergreen, mixed conifer, and Douglas-fir forests and in pine and black oak stands. Populations are generally found in areas of from 60 -100% shade provided by tree canopy or shrubs (Rice 1984).

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Moist to dry coniferous forests and thickets; 0--3200m.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: Of the 8 states where this species is reported, only one, California, does not actively computer track occurrences. Three states give it a state rank of "S3", four give it an "S2" and one an "S1". There are over 300 occurrences reported from Oregon (ORNHIC 2002). In 1997, 36 precise locations documented in 7 counties in Colorado.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Apr--Aug.
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Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cypripedium fasciculatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cypripedium fasciculatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Rankou, H.

Reviewer/s
Fay, M. & Sharma, J.

Contributor/s

Justification

Cypripedium fasciculatum is scattered widely across eight states in western North America. Most of the subpopulations are small and large subpopulations occur only occasionally. The area of occupancy of C. fasciculatum is about 400 km2 and the species is under numerous threats, especially habitat destruction, tree harvesting, light regime disturbance, alteration of the moisture or temperature regime, browsing, grazing, trampling, road and trail construction, fire suppression and collection which cause a continuing decline of the species on all of the 7-10 estimated locations leading to the destruction of some subpopulations. The species is therefore assessed as Vulnerable (VU).

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: The species' large overall range and the number of known populations suggest that the taxon is not in immediate danger. However, the small size of most populations, their isolated nature, and the presence of conflicting land uses warrant concern for the species' long-term survival throughout its range.

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.

Comments: In CA, this species is mostly found in serpentine seeps and along streambanks.
It has been hypothesized that a species of fungus associated with deer or elk feces is required for seed germination. Cypripedium fasciculatum occurs in habitats that burn with some regularity (at least historically). The taxon may be able to survive a low intensity underburn, but not high intensity fires in areas where fuel loading is unnaturally high as a result of decades of fire suppression (WANHP 2002).

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Population

Population

Cypripedium fasciculatum abundance may range from one to over 1,000. Over half of the subpopulations have fewer than 10 stems, over 90% have fewer than 100 stems and large populations occur only occasionally. The trend of the population is decreasing and some of the subpopulations are being destroyed due to many threats.

In California, approximately 66% of populations declined in size and 30% - 45% fell to zero, the population size is estimated to number 27 stems.

In Plumas National Forest in the Sierra Nevada and Pacific Northwest, the population size is over two thousand stems.

In Oregon and Washington, most subpopulations (96%) have stem counts less than 100, with most ranging between 1 and 20.

On Federal lands, the total number of extant sites is likely to be lower than indicated by the number of original sighting reports because some subpopulations have declined or dropped to zero.

In Wyoming, most subpopulations contain relatively few individuals but there is one with 1,000.

In Oregon, the population size is around 4,500.

In Colorado, the population size is around 10,000.

Sources: Carothers 2003, Fertig 2000, WYNHP 2002, Kaye and Cramer 2005.


Population Trend
Decreasing
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Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: Plants in Wyoming are possibly decreasing due to loss of habitat caused by logging. Recent findings may suggest that the species is more widespread in Wyoming than previously considered (Fertig 2000).

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 30-50%

Comments: Plants in Wyoming are possibly decreasing due to loss of habitat caused by logging. Recent findings may suggest that the species is more widespread in Wyoming than previously considered (Fertig 2000).

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Threats

Major Threats

Cypripedium fasciculatum is under numerous threats especially habitat destruction, tree harvest activities which can severely alter the light regime and forest floor, activities that alter the moisture or temperature regime, actions that disturb the soil and decrease vegetation cover, timbering, equipment use that can severely compact the soil, road and trail construction and fire suppression.

In addition to browsing, grazing sheep and/or cattle that put plants at risk of being trampled, collection by garden lovers and intensive recreational activities.

(Fertig 2000, Kaye and Cramer 2005, Latham and Hibbs 2001, Knecht 1996, Vance 2002).

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Degree of Threat: High

Comments: This species is threatened by timbering, road construction, development, fire suppression, and collecting (Fertig 2000). Surface disturbances and canopy elimination may also negatively affect this species

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

All orchid species are included under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

This plant is listed by the U.S. Federal Government. However, the following actions are recommended to protect Cypripedium fasciculatum:

- Protection of the sites from habitat loss and disturbances, trampling and recreational activities.

- Protection of the sites by avoiding activities that alter or remove soil, duff, or the organic matter in the species habitat area.

- Fencing the vulnerable sites to protect the species from collection and herbivores.

- Sympathetic management of isolated populations.

- Manage sites to include entire populations plus an area large enough to maintain current habitat and associated microclimate, primarily temperature and moisture.

- Maintain sufficient cover to avoid any more than irregular direct solar radiation on the species and the forest floor.

- Fencing the species locations in order to capture dormant plants as they do not appear above ground every year.

- Maintain decayed down logs, snags, and duff layer within the species habitat area for favourable forest floor conditions, habitat, soil moisture and mycorrhizal associates.

- Fire management as the species cannot tolerate high-intensity fire that eliminates the duff layer.

- Raising public awareness.

- Protection of living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species being picked or dug up.

- Ex situ conservation: artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.

- Monitoring and surveillance of the existing populations and sites.

- Estimation of population sizes and study their dynamics.

Sources: Fertig 2000, Kaye and Cramer 2005, Latham and Hibbs 2001, Knecht 1996, Sheviak 1990, Vance 2002.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: ESTHETIC, Showy wildflower

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Wikipedia

Cypripedium fasciculatum

Cypripedium fasciculatum is a member of the orchid genus Cypripedium. Members of this genus are commonly referred to as Lady's Slipper orchids.

C. fasciculatum, along with C. montanum and C. californicum, are the only members of the genus Cypripedium that are endemic to western North America.

Description[edit]

C. fasciculatum has two plicate leaves that are usually near the ground, but can by elevated up to 15 cm in some individuals. Up to four flowers hang from a drooping stem; sometimes resting on the leaves or even on the ground. The petals and sepals are green to purplish-brown while the pouch is yellowish-green with purple streaking near the opening.

Range[edit]

C. fasciculatum is found in the western United States in Washington, Oregon, California, Colorado, Montana, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming.[1][2] It is usually found in cool, open coniferous forests, mostly in the mountains.

References[edit]

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