Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Cypripedium candidum is scattered widely across the Unites States (seventeen states) and two Canadian provinces. The species can be found from Manitoba to central Nebraska and Iowa; east to Alabama, Kentucky, Maryland, New York and Ontario. Also in North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Connecticut, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois. The species is extinct in Pennsylvania and possibly Saskatchewan and it is known only from historical records in Missouri and New Jersey.

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 1,887,985 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 800 km².

The species can be found from sea level up to to 1,000 m altitude.

Sources: Cribb 1997, Fernald 1950, Frosch and Cribb 2012, Kartesz 1994, Luer 1975, Niemann 1986, Sheviak 2002, and Smith 1993.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: Extant in seventeen states and two Canadian provinces. Manitoba south to central Nebraska, Iowa; east to Alabama, Kentucky, Maryland, New York and Ontario. Also in North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Connecticut, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois. Extirpated from Pennsylvania and possibly Saskatchewan.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Man., Ont., Sask.; Ala., Ill., Ind., Iowa., Ky., Md., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., S.Dak., Wis.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants erect, 11–40 cm. Leaves 3–4(–5), on proximal or middle portion of stem, alternate, erect-ascending; blade lanceolate or elliptic to oblanceolate, 7–20 × 0.9–5.3 cm. Flowers 1(–2); sepals green to pale brownish yellow, usually spotted and striped with reddish brown or madder; dorsal sepal ovate to ovate-lance-acuminate, 15–35 × 7–13 mm; lateral sepals connate; synsepal 13–35 × 7–15 mm; petals spreading to somewhat deflexed, same color as sepals, spirally twisted or spiral-undulate, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 23–46 × 3–5 mm; lip white, obovoid or oblance-ovoid to oblance-fusiform, 17–27 mm; orifice basal, 10–15 mm; staminode lanceoloid or oblong-lanceoloid to ellipsoid. 2n = 20.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Small White Lady's-slippers can hybridize with Yellow Lady's-slippers (Cypripedium parviflorum). The flowers of the hybrids are usually light yellow or cream-coloured, not pure white. Hybrid plants also tend to be larger than Small White Lady's-slippers.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

Typical habitats of Cypripedium candidum include wet prairies, mesic blacksoil prairie, sedge meadows, swamps, bogs, calcareous fens, glades, wooded grasslands, sheltered ravines, dry rocky slopes, railways lines and roadside ditches. C. candidum prefers full sunlight in moist to dry calcareous and sandy substrates (calcium-rich, or alkaline). The species flowers from late May through mid-June and seeds are released from capsules in early September.

Sources: Cribb 1997, Fernald 1950, Frosch and Cribb 2012, Kartesz 1994, Luer 1975, Niemann 1986, Sheviak 2002, and Smith 1993.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Mesic blacksoil prairie, wet blacksoil prairie, glacial till hill prairie, sedge meadow, calcareous fen, glade. Calcareous soils. In Manitoba, this species can be found in moist calcareous (calcium-rich, or alkaline) prairie areas or openings in wooded grasslands. It most often grows in relatively undisturbed grassland, but can also be found in moderately disturbed sites such as roadside ditches.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Mesic to wet prairies and fen meadows, very rarely open wooded slopes; 70--700m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of White Lady's Slipper in Illinois

Cypripedium candidum (White Lady's Slipper)
(the showy, but deceptive, flower of this orchid provides neither nectar nor pollen to insect visitors; the most effective pollinators are small bees with pollinia attached to their bodies; one observation is from Stoutamire, otherwise observations are from Catling & Knerer)

Bees (long-tongued)
Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada sp. exp np (CK)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella striata exp (CK), Halictus confusus exp (CK), Lasioglossum atlanticus exp (CK), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus exp (CK), Lasioglossum rohweri exp (CK); Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes sp. exp np (CK); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena barbilabris exp (Stm), Andrena ziziae exp (CK)

Wasps
Chalcididae: Unidentified sp. exp (CK)

Beetles
Elateridae: Unidentified sp. exp np (CK)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: Minnesota: Over a hundred occurrences. The number of occurrences has declined 52% from historic county records (Natural Areas J. 3(4):19).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Apr--Jul.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL, Long-lived

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cypripedium candidum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cypripedium candidum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Rankou, H.

Reviewer/s
Fay, M. & Sharma, J.

Contributor/s

Justification

Cypripedium candidum is scattered widely across the United States and Canada, and is most abundant in Minnesota with subpopulations containing over hundred individuals, but it is less common elsewhere. The population trend is decreasing and the species is extinct in Pennsylvania and possibly Saskatchewan, Missouri and New Jersey.

The area of occupancy (708 km2) of C. candidum is well below 2,000 km2 and the species is under numerous threats especially habitat loss, agriculture intensification, herbicide application, lost of pollinators, clear-cutting, invasion of woody shrubs and exotic species, hydrological alterations, land drainage, drought, infrastructure development, collection and peat or marl mining activities, which cause a continuing decline of the species on all the estimated locations and the destruction of some subpopulations. It is estimated that the species currently occurs in eight threat defined locations and these are increasingly becoming severely fragmented. Therefore, C. candidum is assessed as Vulnerable (VU).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Although Cypripedium candidum's range has decreased rapidly in the last century, there are still numerous extant occurrences. Also, the protected occurrences extend across its range, thus potentially maintaining some degree of genetic diversity.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population

Cypripedium candidum is most abundant in Minnesota with subpopulations over hundred individuals and it is less common elsewhere. The number of occurrences has declined 52% from historic county records. The trend of the population is decreasing and the species is extinct in Pennsylvania and possibly in Saskatchewan, Missouri and New Jersey (Catling and Knerer 1980, Coffin and Pfannmuller 1988, Gleason and Cronquist 1991, Spooner et al. 1983).


Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats

Cypripedium candidum is under numerous anthropogenic threats, especially habitat destruction, agriculture intensification, herbicide application, lost of pollinators and disturbance of the species habitats due to urbanization, clear-cutting, suppression of natural disturbance regimes, logging practices, accidental trampling, and collection by wildflower hunters.

Cypripedium candidum is also threatened by domestic livestock grazing, competition from non-native, invasion of woody shrubs due to ecological succession from an open to a shaded community, hydrological alterations, land drainage, infrastructure development (especially road works) and peat or marl mining activities.

In addition to climate change, frequent droughts, invasion of exotic species Rhamnus frangula (Glossy-leaved Buckthorn) and Lythrum salicaria (Purple Loosestrife) and herbivores.

Sources: Catling and Knerer 1980, Coffin and Pfannmuller 1988, Gleason and Cronquist 1991, and Spooner et al. 1983.


Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Encroachment by woody plants and successional change, habitat destruction, collection by wildflower hunters, herbicide application, loss of pollinators.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

All orchid species are included under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

This plant is listed by the U.S. Federal Government and exemplary occurrences are protected and managed by several conservation organizations, including The Nature Conservancy and the Michigan Nature Association.

However, the following actions are recommended to protect Cypripedium candidum:

- Protection of the sites from habitat loss, agriculture intensification, trampling, logging and mining activities.

- Fencing the vulnerable sites to protect the species from collection and herbivores.

- Sympathetic management of isolated populations.

- Maintenance fen hydrology by prevention of hydrological changes and maintenance of a fairly open condition.

- Study of fen hydrology and development of policy.

- Careful fire management for shrub control and healthy maintenance of populations.

- Research on the breeding biology and genetic diversity of this species will provide a sounder basis for making management decisions.

- Raising of public awareness.

- Protection of living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species being picked or dug up.

- Ex situ conservation: artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.

- Monitoring and surveillance of the existing populations and sites.

- Estimation of population sizes and study their dynamics.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biological Research Needs: Gene exchange in variously-sized populations; genetic relationships between populations throughout range; pollinator behavior with respect to C. candidum; germination and growth requirements.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Stewardship Overview: Prescribed burning of all habitat types; maintenance of adequate groundwater levels; maintenance of pollinator breeding habitat; control of livestock and other habitat degraders.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Cypripedium candidum

Cypripedium candidum, also known as small white lady's slipper or white lady's slipper, is a rare orchid of the Cypripedium genus. It is found in wet prairies and fens, in rich, highly calcareous soils, sedge meadow edges, calcareous roadside and railway ditches. Cypripedium candidum grows to a height of 10 to 40 cm, and blooms from early May to June. Its white pouch-like lip, sometimes dotted with maroon on the inside, is accented by tan, green or brown lateral sepals and petals. It has been known to hybridize with the small yellow ladyslipper, C. parviflorum var. makasin, resulting in the natural hybrid Cypripedium × andrewsii. The leaves and stems are slightly pubescent. The plants grow in (generally) long-lived clumps, with some clumps having up to 50 or more flowers.

Cypripedium candidum is found from Western New York, across southern Ontario to North Dakota, and south to New Jersey and Missouri. There are isolated populations of Cypripedium candidum in Connecticut, Maryland[1] Manitoba, Virginia, Alabama, and (formerly) Saskatchewan.[2][3]

Cypripedium candidum is considered rare across Canada, endangered in Ontario, and protected under the Ontario Endangered Species Act. It is believed to be extirpated from Saskatchewan. It is threatened in the United States, extirpated from Pennsylvania, endangered in South Dakota and Wisconsin, threatened in Illinois, Kentucky, and Michigan, and rare in Missouri and North Dakota. It is listed in Canada as N2, or endangered. Globally, however, it is listed as G4 (apparently secure) because there are protected sites across its entire range. It is a perennial, with horizontal, wiry-rooted rhizomes growing a few centimeters below the surface of the soil, and hence resistant to most prairie fires. It is shade-intolerant and therefore requires substantial management for invasive and woody species.

Cypripedium candidum is uncommon because it has a low seed set caused by often unpollinated flowers, as well as that its habitat of wet prairies and fens have been greatly decreased through draining for agricultural purposes. In Ontario, this orchid has never been common due to limited occurrences of fens in Cypripedium candidum's Southern-Ontario range. Habitat loss due to fragmentation through agriculture and development, suppression of fire, incursions by invasive species, especially reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinaceae), dogwood (cornus sp.), leafy spurge, St. John’s wort and buckthorn (rhamnus sp.), changes in hydrology, loss of pollinators and environmental challenges to the obligate mycorrhizae that support this species are all responsible for its decline. This ladyslipper is most intolerant of shade, and so management of remnant prairies needs to be a part of any species recovery strategies. Long-term monitoring of this species is being done through various scientific organizations, including the Chicago Botanic Garden's respected Plants of Concern program.

Like many wild orchids, this species has been further endangered by collecting for generally futile attempts at cultivation. It is now known from only two sites in the province of Ontario.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Cypripedium candidum begins blooming while the shoots are still emerging from the soil; at that time they are small, with the leaves clustered near the base. The plants enlarge greatly during and after anthesis, and the leaves may assume a more median position. The orifice of the lip in C. candidum is distinctive, the apical margin forming an acute angle. This feature is shared with C. montanum and differs from the commonly obtuse margin in C. parviflorum; hence, it can aid determination of discolored herbarium specimens. Hybrids of C. candidum and C. parviflorum have been designated C. × andrewsii A. M. Fuller. See 11. C. parviflorum for a general discussion of hybridization and variation within and between related species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Distinct species.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!