Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Cypripedium californicum is restricted in range, occurring only in California and Oregon, USA. C. californicum specifically occurs in Oregon (Josephine and Curry Counties) and in California (in Butte, Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, Marin (extinct there), Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, Sonoma and Trinity Counties).

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 112,805 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 192 to 450 km².

The species can be found between 450 and to 1,000 m altitude.


Sources: Cribb 1997, Frosch and Cribb 2012, Coleman 1989, and Kartesz 1994.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: The range for this species in Oregon is predominantly Josephine and Curry Counties with one location just across the Curry County border in southern Coos County. In California it is currently found in Butte, Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, Marin (extinct there), Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, Sonoma and Trinity Counties. The population in Marin County was washed away (Coleman 1989).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Calif., Oreg.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants erect, 25–120 cm. Leaves 5–10, along length of stem, alternate, ascending to spreading; blade elliptic-lanceolate to broadly elliptic, 5–16 × 1.5–6.5 cm. Flowers 3–18(–22); sepals yellow-green to pale brownish yellow; dorsal sepal elliptic, 14–20 × 7–13 mm; lateral sepals connate almost to apex; synsepal 12–20 × 10–12 mm; petals spreading, same color as sepals or more yellowish, linear-oblong to linear-lanceolate, flat, 14–16 × 3–5 mm; lip white, sometimes pinkish, obovoid, 15–20 mm; orifice basal, 11–14 mm; staminode suborbicular-subauriform.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

Cypripedium californicum occurs in a restricted habitat of serpentine seep areas, wet marshy places and riparian areas. C. californicum prefers shade and often grows with Darlingtonia californica and with Calocedrus decurrens (Incense Cedar). It flowers from June to August.


Sources: Cribb 1997, Frosch and Cribb 2012, Coleman 1989, and Kartesz 1994.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Riparian areas, seepy sites, bogs and other wet areas on serpentine substrate.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Forest openings, especially on steep slopes, in seeps, springy marshes; 0--1600m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300

Comments: There are 62 records for Oregon although the Oregon Natural Heritage Program stopped actively computer tracking this species in 1991. It is unknown how many of these have been destroyed since many of these records were from surveys during the pre-timber sale processing. The California Natural Diversity Database has assigned this species to the Watch List and does not actively computer track it. There is a stack of potential EO sources 4" thick in the file.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering May--Jun.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cypripedium californicum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cypripedium californicum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Rankou, H.

Reviewer/s
Fay, M. & Sharma, J.

Contributor/s

Justification

Cypripedium californicum is restricted in range occurring only in California and Oregon with small subpopulations of less than 10 mature individuals and rarely larger subpopulations. The area of occupancy of the species is 194 to 450 km2 below the 500 km2 threshold for Endangered and is known from four locations. C. californicum is under numerous threats especially habitat loss and disturbance of its restricted range due to urbanization, clear-cutting, suppression of natural disturbance regimes, logging practices, accidental trampling, climate change, mining activities and collection which cause a continuing decline of the species on the estimated locations and the destruction of some subpopulations (e.g. Marin County population is already destroyed). Therefore, C. californicum is assessed as Endangered (EN).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Although total population numbers seem to be fairly high (10,000+ individuals), this species is restricted in habitat (serpentine) and limited in range to southwestern Oregon and northern California. Its habitat and range are subject to logging and mining. It is at least somewhat collectable. In addition, many of the reports are from pre-timber sales survey, and it is unknown what happened to the populations after the harvesting activities.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.

Comments: Usually found in serpentine seeps.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population

Cypripedium californicum usually occurs in small subpopulations with less than 10 mature individuals and rarely more than 1,000 individuals. The trend of the population is decreasing; the population in Marin County is already destroyed due to many threats (Coleman 1989, Kartesz 1994).


Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: This used to read that pop trends were stable. But, in 2005, CNDDB modified this to indicate that due to collecting, logging activities and other threats, the trend is slightly down. Several CA pops have been revisited and not found.

Global Long Term Trend: Unknown

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats

Cypripedium californicum is under numerous anthropogenic threats including habitat loss and disturbance of its restricted range due to urbanization, clear-cutting, suppression of natural disturbance regimes, logging practices, accidental trampling, climate change and collection. In addition to deforestation, hydrological alterations, human interferences, drainage and mining operations pose major threats to some populations (Coleman 1989, Kartesz 1994).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Degree of Threat: Low

Comments: Populations occur in areas that could be logged and mined. The serpentine wetland habitats where it occurs are vulnerable to disturbance. Collecting does happen.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

All orchid species are included under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

The following actions are recommended to protect Cypripedium californicum:

- Protection of the habitat, especially the serpentine seep areas from logging and mining activities.

- Fencing the vulnerable sites to protect the species from collection.

- Control the supply of sun light to the forest floor as the species prefers shade.

- Sympathetic management of isolated populations.

- Raising public awareness.

- Protection of living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species being picked or dug up.

- Ex situ conservation: artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.

- Monitoring and surveillance of the existing populations and sites.

- Estimation of population sizes and study their dynamics.

Sources: Coleman 1989 and Kartesz 1994.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Cypripedium californicum

The California lady's slipper (Cypripedium californicum) is a member of the orchid genus Cypripedium, the lady's slipper orchids. It is native to the western United States, where it has a very restricted range and can only be found in the mountains of southwestern Oregon (Kalmiopsis Wilderness) and northern California.[2][3] It prefers the margins of woodland streams in open coniferous forests.

It often grows in very large clumps and each stem can bear up to 21 flowers. It can grow to be up to over a meter in height and has alternate, plicate leaves the length of the stem. The petals and sepals tend to be greenish-brown while the small pouch is pure white with occasional pink spots.

Blooming in Klamath Mountains, Del Norte County, California.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rankou, H. (2014) Cypripedium californicum. In: IUCN 2014. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1.
  2. ^ Cypripedium californicum A. Gray. California lady's slipper. US Department of Agriculture
  3. ^ Biota of North America Program, county distribution map. bonap.net
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!