Overview

Brief Summary

The Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites) are a group of insects. The approximately 600 species in this order are all obligate parasites of other insects. Strepsipterans have extreme sexual dimorphism. The short-lived males are free-living and winged. The forewings are greatly reduced and haltere-like (Pix et al. 1993) while the hindwings are large and fan-shaped. The males' antennae are large and branched, and the eyes are raspberry-like with a small number of large ommatidia (Kinzelbach 1971, 1990, Kathirithamby 1989). All known strepsipteran females are wingless and resemble larvae to some degree (Kathirithamby 1989). In the suborder Mengenillidia, the females are free-living and have small eyes, mouthparts, and legs. However, in the suborder Stylopidia, females are totally endoparasitic within the host and completely lack the external characteristics typical of adult insects (Kathirithamby 1989).

  • Kathirithamby, J. 1989. Review of the order Strepsiptera. Systematic Entomology 14: 41-92.
  • Kinzelbach, R. K. 1971. Morphologische Befunde an Fächerflüglern und ihre phylogenetische Bedeutung (Insecta: Strepsiptera). Zoologica 119(1&2) pp. 256.
  • Kinzelbach, R. 1990. The systematic position of Strepsiptera (Insecta). American Entomologist 36:292-303.
  • Pix, W., G. Nalbach, and J. Zeil. 1993. Strepsipteran forewings are haltere-like organs of equilibrium. Naturwissenschaften 80:371-374.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Katja Schulz

Supplier: Katja Schulz

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Strepsiptera Overview

Twisted-wing parasites gets their common name from resting males, because the wings are laid at an odd angle.  The females do not have wings and sometimes do not have legs either.  Parasitic Strepsiptera go through hypermetamorphosis, which means they have larvae that have the motor skills to find a host.  The larvae are called triungulins and find their way to a host after leaving a female.  They look for wasps, planthoppers, bees, leafhoppers, and other insects to in habit.  Inside the host, the larva molts and resembles a worm at this stage.  It molts a few more times and then pupates inside its larval skin.  After the male emerges, he exists the host and looks for other females.  The female stays inside her host and releases a pheromone to attract a male.   The adult males will usually live around five hours before dying.  They do not eat and use their mouth as a sensory structure instead.  They fly around until they find a host that is emitting a female’s pheromone.  The females die after the larvae are produced.  Order Strepsiptera can be found throughout the world.

  • Borror, Donald, Charles Triplehorn, and Norman Johnson. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. 6th ed. Saunders College Publishing, 1989. 479-481. Print.
  • Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney. 2002. Strepsiptera. Twisted-wing parasites. Version 24. September 2002 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Strepsiptera/8222/2002.09.24 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
  • "Strepsiptera." Wikipedia. 2013. .
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Rhianna Hruska

Supplier: Rhianna Hruska

Unreviewed

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 5.0 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:234Public Records:210
Specimens with Sequences:216Public Species:26
Specimens with Barcodes:187Public BINs:58
Species:26         
Species With Barcodes:19         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Strepsiptera

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!