Overview

Distribution

Global Range: Widespread throughout the East from Newfoundland, and Ontario south to Florida, Texas, Cuba and the Bahamas, west to the Central and Lake states.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 4–110(–135) cm. Corms globose to elongate, not forked, 8–31 mm. Leaves not appressed to inflorescences at flowering; blade linear, lanceolate, or seldom elliptic-lanceolate, 2–50 cm × 2–35(–50) mm, margins slightly to strongly curled transversely. Inflorescences green or slightly purple at base, becoming entirely green after flowering, 4–135 cm; floral bracts ovate to ovate-lanceolate, subulate, 3–30 mm. Flowers 1–25, opening sequentially, magenta, pink, to white, faintly fragrant; dorsal sepal oblanceolate, 15–31 × 5–18 mm, apex acuminate; lateral sepals occasionally reflexed distally, ovate to lanceolate, slightly falcate, 13–26 × 5–16 mm, apex apiculate to acuminate; petals obpandurate to seldom elliptic, slightly falcate, 15–28 × 4–14 mm, apex obtuse; lip 11–23 mm, middle lobe with dilated end typically anvil-shaped, seldom triangular, 5.5–21 mm wide; column 12–25 × 1–2 mm, distal end 4.5–10 mm wide; rostellum present or absent; stigma at angle to column surface. Capsules ovoid to ellipsoid, 13–30 × 5–10 mm. 2n = 26, 40, 42.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Limodorum tuberosum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 950. 1753
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: A diverse range of open, wet situations w/ only apparent common factors being full sun light & constant water supply.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Grass Pink Orchid in Illinois

Calopogon tuberosus (Grass Pink Orchid)
(insects are lured to the flower by its deceptive appearance, as it is odorless and nectarless; bumblebees are the primary pollinators; observations are from F.R. Cole, Thien & Marcks, Luer, and Small)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera exp (Lu); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus fervida exp (Co), Bombus griseocallis exp (Lu), Bombus pensylvanica exp (Lu), Bombus ternarius exp fq (TM), Bombus terricola exp fq (TM), Bombus vagans exp fq (Co, TM); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica exp (Lu); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile melanophaea exp (TM)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae: Unspecified sp. ("sweat bee") exp (Co)

Flies
Syrphidae: Toxomerus marginatus exp fq np (Sm)

Butterflies
Lycaenidae: Lycaena epixanthe exp np (Co)

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Thymelicus lineolus exp fq (Lu, Sm)

Beetles
Scarabaeidae: Trichiotinus affinis exp (Co)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Calopogon tuberosus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Calopogon tuberosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread and rather frequent yet decreasing severely due to habitat destruction and overcollection.

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Threats

Comments: Drying of habitat, overshading by woody species and over- collecting.

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Wikipedia

Calopogon tuberosus

Wild pink orchid Calopogon tuberosus

Calopogon tuberosus, the tuberous grasspink, is an orchid native to eastern North America.[1] In the United States it occurs from as far southwest as Texas and Oklahoma and southeast to the Florida Everglades to as far northeast as Maine and as far northwest as Minnesota. In Canada it is found all provinces from Newfoundland to Manitoba. It also is found in St. Pierre & Miquelon, Cuba and the Bahamas.[2][3][4]

Conservation status[edit]

It is listed as "G5 - Secure" under the NatureServe conservation status system. However it is listed as an endangered species by the states of Illinois, Kentucky, and Maryland, and as exploitably vulnerable by New York.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Justice, William S.; Bell, C. Ritchie; Lindsey, Anne H. (2005). Wild Flowers of North Carolina (2. printing. ed.). Chapel Hill, NC: Univ. of North Carolina Press. p. 53. ISBN 0807855979. 
  2. ^ Biota of North America Program
  3. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  4. ^ US Department of Agriculture Plants profile
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Notes

Comments

Calopogon tuberosus is the most variable and widespread species in the the genus. It occurs from Manitoba and Newfoundland south to Texas, Florida, the Bahamas, and Cuba.  

 Calopogon tuberosus can be distinguished from other species in the genus where sympatric by its relatively robust size and elongated lip with wide, anvil-shaped dilated distal end. Plants with a triangular-shaped middle lip lobe are uncommon in the south and occur toward the northern part of the range, and those with long but narrowed lips occur in C. tuberosus var. simpsonii, the latter plants generally being much larger and occurring in a different habitat than all other species of Calopogon.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Kartesz (1994) recognizes two varieties of Calopogon tuberosus: var. simpsonii and var. tuberosus. C. pulchellus is a synonym of the full species since C. pulchellus R. Br. also included by Kartesz in the var. tuberosus.

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