Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: This orchid is found in scattered locations of southern Quebec, southern Ontario, northern Vermont, New York, northern Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. It is also found more commonly in the southeastern US along the Coastal Plain from Virginia to Texas. Since this orchid is easily overlooked, there is a chance that the range is even broader than this.

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N.B., N.S., Ont., Que.; Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 8–29 cm. Stems purplish green, succulent, glabrous. Leaves: blade dark green, ovate, ovate-oblong, or elliptic, 1.3–4 × 0.5–2.1 cm, base often subcordate, apex obtuse to apiculate. Inflorescences 5–25-flowered, lax, 45–110 mm; floral bracts suborbiculate-ovate, 2 × 1 mm, apex obtuse; peduncle and rachis slightly glandular-puberulent; bracts, pedicel, and ovary glabrous. Flowers reddish purple; pedicel filiform, 4–6 mm; dorsal sepal ovate-elliptic, concave, 1.5 × 1 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals ovate, falcate, 1.5 × 1 mm, apex obtuse; petals recurved, oblong, 1.5 × 0.5 mm, apex obtuse; lip linear, 6–12 × 1.5–2 mm, base extended into 2 rounded, linear lobes, projecting distally, partially surrounding column, distal half split into 2 linear-lanceolate lobes with minute tooth in sinus; column 0.5–1 × 0.5–1 mm. Capsules horizontal, ovoid, 8 × 5 mm, with relatively few large seeds.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Bifolium australe (Lindley) Nieuwland; Diphryllum australe Kuntze; Neottia australis (Lindley) Szlachetko; Ophrys australis (Lindley) House
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Ecology

Habitat

--Jul. Rich humus of low moist woods, marshes, sphagnum bogs, usually in association with rhizomes of cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea) and royal fern (O. regalis); 0--1000m.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Jan (Fla.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Listera australis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.

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Threats

Degree of Threat: High - medium

Comments: Forest management practices (harvest, site prep, Rx fire) present a low-level threat to this species; sites may be seasonally dry yet be impacted by any harvesting of trees (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

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Notes

Comments

Perianth parts of Listera australis persist as capsules mature. This is such a small orchid that it can easily be overlooked; it may have a wider distribution than recorded here.
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