Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Range Description

Phyllospadix scouleri occurs in the Pacific from Southeast Alaska to the tip of Baja California and Mexico.
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B.C.; Alaska, Calif., Oreg., Wash.; Mexico (in Baja California).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs; nodes with 2 rows of 3--5 roots. Leaves: sheath 4--35 cm, margins not overlapping; blade to 2 m ´ 1--4 mm, margins entire, apex obtuse to truncate or rarely slightly notched; veins 3. Generative shoots 0.2--11 cm, nodes 1--2, proximal node when present with 1 leaf, sterile, distal node with 1 leaf and 1(--2) spathes. Inflorescences: peduncles 11--60 ´ 1--2 mm; staminate bract 4--5.5 ´ 2--3 mm; pistillate bract 4--8 ´ 1.5--3 mm, base not narrowed, apex truncate to acute. Fruits 4--5 ´ 5.5 mm.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Along the Pacific coast of North America, this species inhabits the lower intertidal and shallow subtidal zone (Green and Short 2003). Phyllospadix spp. grow on rocky substrates in regions with high wave exposure (Hemminga and Duarte 2000).

Surfgrass (Phyllospadix spp.) are not found where sea surface temperatures exceed 21°C in winter or 27°C in the summer. Surfgrass has a low tolerance to higher temperatures which suggests that populations in Baja California Sur might be impacted by global climate change. Phyllospadix scouleri is distributed higher in the lower intertidal and upper subtidal zones than P. torreyi (Ramirez-Garcia et al. 2002).

Phyllospadix scouleri dominates space and persists through all seasons without serious damage by disturbances such as storm waves. This species is long-lived and persistent and may preempt space, preventing other species from invading. This species is slow to recover after removal (Turner 1985).

Systems
  • Marine
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Intertidal and upper part of sublittoral; -2m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering and fruiting late spring and summer.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Phyllospadix scouleri

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Phyllospadix scouleri

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Short, F.T., Carruthers, T.J.R., Waycott, M., Kendrick, G.A., Fourqurean, J.W., Callabine, A., Kenworthy, W.J. & Dennison, W.C.

Reviewer/s
Livingstone, S., Harwell, H. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This is a common species within suitable habitat and the population status is thought to be stable. There are no major threats although there are some localized declines due to coastal development and mechanical damage and the species is slow to recover from damage. This species is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This is a common species in suitable substrate. The population status is thought to be stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species. Localized threats include coastal development and modifications and over-water structures in the form of ferry terminals, commercial docks. Mechanical damage from boats and dredging is also a minor localized threat.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species-specific conservation measures for this species. It is not clear if the federal, provincial or state, or local administrative laws and ordinances recognize this species in the Northeast Pacific (Green and Short 2003).
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Wikipedia

Phyllospadix scouleri

Phyllospadix scouleri, or Scouler's surf grass, is a flowering marine plant in the family Zosteraceae. It is native to the coastline of western North America from the Alaskan panhandle to Baja California.

This slender, vivid green plant has long, flat blades. It grows in large clumps or beds exposed during low tide and submerged at high tide. It is found attached to rocks in the middle to low intertidal zones to a depth of about 40–50 ft.[2]

Biology[edit]

Male and female flowers are borne on different plants and there are many more female plants than males. The flowers are in spikes at the base of the leaves and do not have petals. The pollen is spread by water movement which can occur underwater, but most pollination takes place on the surface of the sea at very low tides. Seedlings cannot establish themselves directly on rocks or colonise bare areas. Instead they germinate among algae, such as red coralline algae, attaching themselves by means of small barbs and intertwining their roots among the algae as they grow. They also send out rhizomes which can colonise new areas. When established, the surf grass may dominate the habitat. A biodiverse invertebrate community lives in surf grass beds and includes snails, limpets and crustaceans, and algae may grow on the stems and leaves.[3]

Uses[edit]

Sea grass was used by Native American tribes along the Southern California Coast to make cordage and other woven objects, including specimens from San Miguel Island dated between about 10,000 and 8,600 years ago (see Connolly, Erlandson, and Norris 1992).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Guiry, M.D. (2010). "Phyllospadix scouleri J.D.Hooker, 1838". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2012-02-03. 
  2. ^ Hooker, William Jackson. 1838. Flora Boreali-Americana 2(10): 171. Phyllospadix scouleri
  3. ^ Langstrot, Lovell; Libby Langstroth; Todd Newberry (2000). A living bay: the underwater world of Monterey Bay. Google Books. p. 37. 
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