Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Phyllospadix japonicus occurs in the northwestern Pacific from the northeast coast of China to South Korea and northwestern Honshu, Japan. Its distribution is very limited. However, in northern China this species has been eliminated from the region due to the establishment of extensive kelp (algal) aquaculture. Given its shallow depth range, patchy occurrence, and current distribution, this species has an area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km2.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Phyllospadix japonicus inhabits the intertidal and subtidal rocky bottoms of temperate regions of Japan and China. In South Korea, it occurs mainly on rocky substrata along the east coast. This species has been observed in both sheltered and open shores, but usually grows in high-energy environments. This species lives at depths from 0-8 m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B2ab(i,ii,iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Short, F.T. & Waycott, M.

Reviewer/s
Livingstone, S., Harwell, H. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
Phyllospadix japonicus has a small distribution in Korea and a very limited range in Japan. There have been declines recorded in Korea. Major threats to this species are localized coastal development and shoreline hardening. In northern China this species was previously widespread over vast rocky shallow subtidal areas, but since the establishment of extensive kelp (algal) aquaculture nearly all the P. japonicus has been eliminated. The recruitment rate of this species is low as it inhabits a high energy environment, where conditions need to be right for seeds to be successful. The population of P. japonicus is naturally fragmented due to a lack of suitable substrate. Overall declines are estimated to be in the region of between 30 and 50 % over the three generation lengths (18 years) which meets the threshold for Vulnerable under criterion A. However, given the shallow depth range and patchy occurrence, the current area of occupancy of this species is estimated to be less than 500 km² and therefore this species also meets the threshold for Endangered under criterion B2, with a continuing decline in area and a fragmented population.
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Population

Population
The range size of Phyllospandix japonicus is declining in Korea (K.S. Lee pers. comm. 2008). In northern China this species was previously widespread over vast rocky shallow subtidal areas, but since the establishment of extensive kelp algal aquaculture virtually all the P. japonicus has been eliminated (approximately 90% decline) (F.T. Short pers. comm. 2008). The distribution in Japan is very limited. This species is naturally fragmented due to a lack of suitable substrate. Overall declines are estimated to be in the region of between 30 and 50 % over the three generation lengths (18 years).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Major threats to P. japonicus include coastal development, shoreline hardening and kelp aquaculture.

The recruitment rate of this species is low as it inhabits a high energy environment, where conditions need to be right for seeds to be successful.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The distribution of Phyllospadix japonicus falls into protected areas in South Korea (Environmental Conservation Areas or Special Coastal Management Areas) and is protected by 'The Marine Ecosystem Conservation and Management Act' in Korea.
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Wikipedia

Phyllospadix japonicus

Phyllospadix japonicus is a plant species found along the seacoasts of Japan, Korea, China (Hebei, Liaoning, Shandong). It occurs in the intertidal zone along the shore.[1]

Phyllospadix japonicus is a perennial herb spreading by means of rhizomes. Leaves are long , up to 100 cm long but rarely more than 2.5 mm across.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Makino, Tomitarô. 1897. Botanical Magazine (Tokyo) 11: 137.
  2. ^ Flora of China v 23 p 107, Phyllospadix iwatensis
  3. ^ Ohwi, J. (1984). Flora of Japan (in English): 1-1067. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C..
  4. ^ Czerepanov, S.K. (1995). Vascular Plants of Russia and Adjacent States (The Former USSR): 1-516. Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  6. ^ Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  7. ^ Kuo, J. & de Hertog, C. (2001). Seagrass taxonomy and identification key. Global Seagrass Research Methods: 31-78. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.
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