Regularity: Regularly occurring
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Range and Habitat in Illinois
Localities documented in Tropicos sources
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)
Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
- Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1103
- Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1493
- Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1515
- Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/637
- Voss, E. G. 1972. Gymnosperms and Monocots. i–xv, 1–488. In Michigan Fl. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1494
- Gleason, H. A. & A. J. Cronquist. 1968. The Pteridophytoa, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae. 1: 1–482. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1495
Range and Habitat in Illinois
Flower-Visiting Insects of White Trout Lily in Illinois
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen; flies suck nectar or feed on pollen; other insects suck nectar; some flies and plant bugs are non-pollinating as indicated below; some observations are from Graenicher and Schemske et al. as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq (Rb, Shm); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia belfragii sn fq; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada dentariae sn, Nomada luteola sn, Nomada sulphurata sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia bucephala bucephala sn, Osmia collinsiae sn, Osmia liganaria lignaria sn fq, Osmia pumila sn fq (Rb, Gr)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella striata sn (Gr), Halictus confusus sn, Halictus rubicunda sn, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes inaequalis sn fq; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena carlini sn cp fq (Rb, Shm), Andrena erigeniae sn (Shm), Andrena erythronii sn cp fq olg (Rb, Shm), Andrena forbesii (Shm), Andrena mariae sn, Andrena nasonii (Shm), Andrena sayi sn cp, Andrena vicina sn cp (Gr)
Syrphidae: Brachypalpus oarus fp np, Eristalis dimidiatus sn; Bombyliidae: Bombylius major sn; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina fp np
Pieridae: Colias philodice sn, Pieris rapae sn
Hesperiidae: Erynnis juvenalis sn
Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus sn np
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Erythronium albidum
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Erythronium albidum
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
|This article does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
Erythronium albidum (White Fawnlily or White Trout Lily) is a small herbaceous flowering plant in the Liliaceae, native to eastern North America, from southern Quebec and southern Manitoba south to Georgia and Texas.
It produces short, slender stems 10–15 cm tall, which bear two oblong leaves on each stem. The leaves are lanceolate, 8–16 cm long and 3–4 cm broad, dark green and covered with a mottled pattern of purple blotches. At the end of the stem, the plant produces a white, lily-like flower 3–4 cm diameter, with six yellow stamens. The flowers are bent downward, and elongate with age. It blooms in mid to late spring.
The plant is mostly found in large groups on the forest floor, often in areas following ground disturbance. Its preferred growing conditions are in part sun to mostly shade and deep, moist loamy soils.
It is also known as Adder's Tongue, Dog's-tooth Violet, Serpent's Tongue, Trout Lily, Deer Tongue, and Yellow Snowdrop.
Folklore and uses
European settlers considered it to have similar properties to Meadow Saffron (Colchicum autumnale), and White Fawnlily was often used as a substitute for it. The plant was listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the United States from 1820-1863 as a treatment for gout.
Some believe that wounds will be healed if the plant is soaked in cold water, then removed and wrapped it in cloth and applied to a wound or bruise. It is left there until the bundle is warm, and then removed and buried in a muddy place.
Little is known of the constituents, because little research has been done. It is known to contain alpha-methylenebutyrolactone. The plant is emetic, emollient, and antiscorbutic when fresh. It is nutritive when dry.
Certain groups of American Indians used it for its emetic and contraceptive properties. The Onondaga women used the leaves as a temporary birth control method in the spring, to avoid giving birth in the most frigid part of winter.
The leaves can be collected anytime, but the bulb enlarges throughout the summer and can be divided in the fall. At that time of year, the bulb is also edible. The fresh leaves are mostly used in the form of a stimulating poultice, applied to swellings, tumors and scrofulous ulcers.
When made into a tea with horsetail (Equisetum hyemale), it is claimed to be good for bleeding or ulcers of bowels, or for tumors and inflammation of the bowels. It has been used as a quick relief for nose bleeds and sore eyes. The fresh roots or leaves are simmered in milk; or the juice of the plant infused in apple cider; and these treatments are used for dropsy, hiccups, vomiting and bleeding of the bowels. Misuse may cause nausea or even vomiting.
Christian mythology told the lily sprang from the tears of Eve when she found motherhood was near.
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