Overview

Brief Summary

The perennial Autumn Crocus (Colchicum autumnale), one of around a hundred species in the genus Colchicum, is is one of the most widespread species in the genus and the only one found as far north as northern Europe and Great Britain. Its distribution is limited to Europe, but within Europe it is very broadly (although not continuously) distributed. Autumn Crocuses are generally found in periodically wet to moderately moist grassland, but occur also in alluvial forests (i.e., forests associated with floodplains).

The flowers and leaves of the Autumn Crocus appear at different times. Flowers appear in the fall and may be present into the winter; leaves appear in the spring and may be present into mid-summer.

Autumn Crocus is perhaps best known as the source of the highly toxic alkaloid colchicine (colchicine has some limited medical applications, but must be used with great care). Although livestock generally avoid this plant, occasional poisoning occurs in cattle, horses, sheep, and pigs, sometimes leading to death. Colchicine has also long been used by plant breeders to generate mutations, a few of which may result in desirable traits, notably polyploidy. The late flowering time and attractive flowers make the Autumn Crocus a popular ornamental plant.

Jung et al. (2011) provide a thorough review of the biology of the Autumn Crocus, including its taxonomy, morphology, geographic and ecological distribution, reproductive biology, ecology, and physiology.

The Autumn Crocus is not threatened in the central portion of its distribution, although it is a species of concern in some countries at the periphery of its range.

(Finkelstein et al. 2010; Jung et al. 2011 and references therein; Smith and Waldren 2011)

  • Finkelstein,Y., S.E. Aks, J.R. Hutson, D.N. Juurlink, P. Nguyen, G. Dubnov-Raz, U. Pollak, G. Koren, and Y. Bentur. 2010. Colchicine poisoning: the dark side of an ancient drug. Clinical Toxicology 48(5): 407-414.
  • Junga, L.S., S. Winterb, R.L. Ecksteina, M. Kriechbaumb, G. Karrerc, E. Welkd, M. Elsässere, T.W. Donatha, and A. Ottea. 2011. Colchicum autumnale L. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 13: 227-244.
  • Smith, R.J. and S. Waldren. 2010. Patterns of genetic variation in Colchicum autumnale L. and its conservation status in Ireland: a broader perspective on local plant conservation. Conservation Genetics 11:1351-1361.
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Distribution

Range Description

An European endemic (Govaerts 2014), native throughout much of Europe (Polunin 1969, Jaeger and Flesch 1990, Jung et al. 2011, BCGI 2013, ENSCO 2014) except for the north, where it has been introduced to some countries, including Denmark and Norway. Although its range is almost continuous through Europe, there are some gaps in the distribution such as the Great Hungarian Plain, where precipitation is low and soils are partly salinized (Jung et al. 2011).
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species is a perennial geophyte found in damp meadows, open woods and river banks over a range of altitudes from near seal level to 1,700 m. The leaves appear in spring and the flowers appear, after the leaves have withered, in autumn. It favours moderately nutrient rich and deep soils with pH values of 4-8. Important pollinators are Bombus hortorum and the honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Jung et al. 2011).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
linear sorus of Urocystis colchici parasitises live leaf of Colchicum vernum

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
linear sorus of Urocystis colchici parasitises live leaf of Colchicum autumnale

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous telium of Uromyces colchici parasitises live leaf of Colchicum autumnale

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Colchicum autumnale

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Colchicum autumnale

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Chadburn, H.

Reviewer/s
Allen, D.J.

Contributor/s

Justification
This is a very widespread species in Europe and it is common in its core range. The extent of occurrence (EOO) greatly exceeds the values needed for a threatened category and it is inferred that the population and area of occupancy (AOO) also exceed such values. It is not thought to have suffered any significant overall declines as the population is noted to have declined in some areas but increased in others. It is assessed as Least Concern.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Population

Population
The species can occur in high population densities, for example, in semi-natural grasslands in Austria and Germany where, as it is toxic to livestock, control measures may even be attempted (Winter et al. 2013).

There have been some declines mainly as a result of agricultural intensification, for example in Ukraine. However, in its core distribution area, such as in parts of Germany and Austria, populations have increased recently.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
This is a widespread species and very common in the core of its range. However, it can be found in Red Data Books of several countries at the distribution limits: Great Britain, Ireland, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Lithuania, Estonia, Belarus, Ukraine, Albania, Bulgaria and northern federal states of Germany. A decline in the number of sites has been noted in Poland and Ukraine mainly as a result of intensification of agriculture, draining, ploughing and re-seeding grassland. In addition collection from the wild is noted in Ukraine, Serbia and Poland (Jung et al. 2011).

The species is known to occur in semi-natural grasslands in Austria and Germany where, as it is toxic to livestock, control measures may even be attempted (Winter et al. 2013) which may pose a threat to local populations.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in national parks within its range, such as Tomorri National Park in Albania (Ruci et al. 2001). It is conserved ex situ in many botanic gardens and seed banks such as Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, and the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum of the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany (BCGI 2013, ENSCO 2014).

Agri-environment schemes that support low input agriculture may in this way promote population growth (Jung et al. 2011).
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Wikipedia

Colchicum autumnale

Colchicum autumnale, commonly known as autumn crocus, meadow saffron or naked lady, is a flower that resembles the true crocuses, but blooms in autumn. (This is not a reliable distinction, however, since many true crocuses flower in autumn.) The name "naked lady" comes from the fact that the flowers emerge from the ground long after the leaves have died back.[3]

The species is commonly cultivated as an ornamental in temperate areas.

Colchicum autumnale is the only species of its genus native to the United Kingdom, with notable populations under the stewardship of the County Wildlife Trusts. It also occurs across mainland Europe from Portugal to Ukraine, and is reportedly naturalized in Denmark, Sweden, European Russia, the Baltic States and New Zealand.[2]

Pharmaceutical uses[edit]

The bulb-like corms of Colchicum autumnale contain colchicine, a useful drug with a narrow therapeutic index. Colchicine is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of gout and familial Mediterranean fever. Colchicine is also used in plant breeding to produce polyploid strains. A synthetic chemical compound, called ICT2588, which is similar to one from the autumn crocus, is in the early stages of drug development for the treatment of some types of cancer. In experimental testing it was successfully used to treat breast, bowel, lung and prostate cancers in mice when used in combination with the drug doxorubicin.[4][5]

Toxicity[edit]

Colchicum plants have been mistaken by foragers for ramsons, which they vaguely resemble, but are deadly poisonous due to their colchicine content. The symptoms of colchicine poisoning resemble those of arsenic, and no antidote is known.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 341, Colchicum autumnale
  2. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Colchicum autumnale
  3. ^ Gajic. 1977. Glasnik prirodnaučkog museja u Beogradu, Serija B, Bioloake nauke Nauke 32: 8. Colchicum autumnale
  4. ^ Battison, Leila (2011-09-12). "BBC News - British flowers are the source of a new cancer drug". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-11-30. 
  5. ^ Atkinson, Jennifer M.; Falconer, Robert A.; Edwards, Dylan R.; Pennington, Caroline J.; Siller, Catherine S.; Shnyder, Steven D.; Bibby, Michael C.; Patterson, Laurence H. et al. (2010). "Development of a Novel Tumor-Targeted Vascular Disrupting Agent Activated by Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinases". Cancer Research 70 (17): 6902–12. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-1440. PMC 2933508. PMID 20663911. 

Further reading[edit]

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