Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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St. Pierre and Miquélon; Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Ga., Ill., Ind., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 2–5 dm; rhizomes thin, spreading. Cauline leaves 2–4; blade dark glossy green adaxially, oblong to elliptic obovate, 15–30 × 5–10 cm. Inflorescences in short, terminal racemes, 3–8(–10)-flowered; bracts 1(–3), narrowly foliaceous. Flowers nodding; tepals yellow to yellowish green, narrowly oblong, 12–16 × 3.5–4.5 mm; filaments 12–17.5 mm; anthers oblong, 2–3.5 mm. Berries ultramarine blue, ovoid, 8–16-seeded, 8–12 mm. Seeds 3–5 mm. 2n = 28, 32.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Dracaena borealis Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1: 454. 1789
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Ecology

Habitat

Rich coniferous, mixed, or deciduous woods; 0--1600m.
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Bluebead Lily in Illinois

Clintonia borealis (Bluebead Lily)
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, flies and beetles suck nectar or feed on pollen, while other insects suck nectar; short-tongued bees and flies are usually non-pollinating; observations are from Graenicher and Barrett & Helenurm)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Bombini): Bombus ternarius (BH), Bombus terricola (BH), Bombus vagans sn cp fq (Gr, BH); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica sn cp (Gr); Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia lignaria lignaria (BH)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn np (Gr), Lasioglossum sp. (BH), Lasioglossum cressonii (BH), Lasioglossum imitatus (BH), Lasioglossum versatus cp np (Gr); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena wilkella (BH)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Rhopalum sp. (BH)

Flies
Syrphidae: Parasyrphus relictus (BH), Platycheirus confusus (BH), Sphaerophoria sp. (BH); Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga nearctica (BH)

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Poanes hobomok sn (BH)

Beetles
Cerambycidae: Pidonia ruficollis (BH)

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering early May--early Jul.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Clintonia borealis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Clintonia borealis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Notes

Comments

Throughout the range of Clintonia borealis a stabilized, 2n = 32 cytotype has been reported (F. H. Utech and L. B. Thien 1973; B. M. Kapoor 1973).
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