Overview

Distribution

Range Description

The species occurs throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere; it is native to North Africa and Europe north to Scandinavia and east through European Russia, Siberia, the Middle East, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and the Western Himalayas to the Amur region of the eastern seaboard of Russia. It is apparently naturalised in southern Canada and the northern United States, Ireland and some of the British Isles.

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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naturalizedintroduced; Alta., Man., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Idaho, Ill., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., S.Dak., Vt., Wis.; Eurasia..
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Distribution: Temperate and subtropical Eurasia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

A glabrous, aquatic perennial herb with horizontal rhizomes; scapes (30-) 50-90 (rarely-150) cm long, erect; roots fibrous. Leaves all radical, usually about as long as the scapes, linear, ensiform, sheathing at the base, 6-9 mm broad. Inflorescence umbellate, cymose with an involucre of lanceolate-acuminate bracts and bracteoles; bracts 2 or 3, upto 25 mm long, 6-8 mm broad; bracteoles numerous, less than 10 mm long, 2-3 mm broad. Flowers pink, pedicellate; pedicels (3-) 5-9 cm long. Perianth segments 6. biseriate. Sepal-like segments obovate. c. 17-veined, keeled, 9-13 mm long and 6-8 mm broad; petal-like segments broadly obovate, c. 13-veined, 9-15 mm long, 8 mm broad. Stamens usually 9, rarely 5 or numerous; filaments linear, usually dilated at the base, variable in length, free, slightly connate at the base; anthers basifixed, 2-celled, ovate to oblong (linear-oblong in young flowers), 2-4 mm long. Carpels 6-9 or many, each 3-5.5 mm long, 1.5-2 mm broad, superior, free or somewhat connate basally, obovate; style simple, short, terminal, persistent; stigma ventral, curved. Ovules numerous, anatropous, minute on reticulate parietal placentas. Fruit a many-seeded, beaked follicle, obovate, 7-9 mm long, 2-3.5 mm broad. Seeds numerous, minute, 0.2-0.4 mm long, oblong with thin testa and straight embryo.
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Description

Herbs, to 150 cm. Leaves linear, to 2.7 m. Inflorescences with 20--25 flowers; scape to 150 cm. Flowers 2--2.5 cm wide; pedicels 4--10 cm; outer tepals elliptic, 6--7.5 × 2--2.5 mm, apex acute, inner tepals oblanceolate, 9--11.5 × 4.5--6 mm, apex obtuse, erose; filaments 3--4.5 mm, anthers 1 mm. Follicles 1 cm.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
B. umbellatus can grow as a terrestrial species on wet mud, emergent in shallow water or more or less permanently submerged in deep or fast-flowing water. It is most often found on nutrient-rich, calcareous clay substrates and will occur in a variety of water bodies such as rivers, lakes, streams, ditches (particularly those which serve as "wet fences") and canals. In Iran and the East Mediterranean region it prefers higher altitude wetlands and canals. This species cannot tolerate warm climate.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Mud and shallow water of streams, lakes, and ditches; 0--700m.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Bagous nodulosus feeds within stem (vegetative) of Butomus umbellatus
Other: sole host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
subaquatic adult of Macroplea appendiculata may be found on Butomus umbellatus
Remarks: season: (2-)4-9(-11)

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering summer--fall.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: May July.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Butomus umbellatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Butomus umbellatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Akhani, H. & Zehzad, B.

Reviewer/s
Lansdown, R.V.

Contributor/s

Justification

This species is classed as Least Concern as it has a widespread distribution and the majority of populations are stable and do not face any major threats.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Population

Population
B. umbellatus is widespread and abundant with apparently stable populations throughout much of its European, Mediterranean and SW Asian range. However, there are areas where it has declined, such as Norway, Croatia and Switzerland.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

There are no known past, ongoing or future threats to this species in much of its range. However, recent extensive dam construction in the Middle East, in particular western Iran, has resulted in the loss or decline of populations in affected sites.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
B. umbellatus is classed as Critically Endangered in Norway, Vulnerable in Switzerland and Near Threatened in Croatia. Current habitat destruction and ongoing drying up of many wetlands in western Iran because of dam construction means that urgent measures are necessary to stop irreversible impacts on many aquatic plants including B. umbellatus. In Iraq the species is very rare and known only from a few localities mostly in the NE of the country. Otherwise, there are no conservation measures in place or needed.
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Wikipedia

Butomus

Butomus is the sole genus in the monogeneric plant family Butomaceae, containing the single species Butomus umbellatus, also known as flowering rush or grass rush.

Description[edit]

The plant is a rhizomatous, hairless, perennial aquatic plant. Its name is derived from Greek bous, meaning "cow", "ox" etc. and tome, a cut (the verb 'temnein' meaning "to cut"), which refers to the plant's swordlike leaves.

Other than suggested by its English common name, it is not a true rush. It is native to Eurasia and grows on the margins of still and slowly moving water down to a depth of about 3 m. It has pink flowers. Introduced into North America as an ornamental plant it has now become a serious invasive weed in the Great Lakes area. In Israel, one of its native countries, it is an endangered species due to the dwindling of its habitat. It can also be found in Great Britain locally, for example Butomus umbellatus at Gwent Levels SSSI on the Caldicot and Wentloog Levels[2]

The plant has linear, pointed leaves up to 1 metre long, or more. The leaves are triangular in cross-section and arise in two rows along the rhizome/base. They are untoothed, parallel veined and twisted.[3]

The inflorescence is umbel-like consisting of a single terminal flower surrounded by three cymes. The flowers are regular and bisexual, 2 to 3 cm across. There are three petal-like sepals which are pink with darker veins. They persist in the fruit. The three petals are like the sepals but somewhat larger. 6 - 9 stamens. Carpels superior, 6 - 9 and slightly united at the base. When ripe they are obovoid and crowned with a persistent style. Ovules are numerous and found scattered over the inner surface of the carpel wall, except on the midrib and edges. Fruit is a follicle. The seeds have no endosperm and a straight embryo. It flowers from July until August.

Butomaceae[edit]

Butomaceae has been recognized by most taxonomists as a plant family; it is sometimes called the "flowering-rush family".

The APG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, 1998), also recognizes such a family, and places it in the order Alismatales, in the clade monocots. The family counts a single species, Butomus umbellatus.

At the ranks of family and order this is the same placement as in the Cronquist system. However, Cronquist assumed a much smaller order and assigned the order to subclass Alismatidae, in class Liliopsida [=monocotyledons].

Uses[edit]

B. umbellatus is cultivated as an ornamental waterside plant.[4]

In parts of Russia the rhizomes are used as food.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x, retrieved 2010-12-10 
  2. ^ Natural World Magazine, Spring 2009, The Wildlife Trust, published by Think publishing
  3. ^ Rose, Francis (2006). The Wild Flower Key. Frederick Warne & Co. pp. 480–481. ISBN 978-0-7232-5175-0. 
  4. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Butomus umbellatus". Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
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Notes

Comments

The name Butomus umbellatus f.orma vallisneriifolius (Sagorski) Glück has been used for plants that grow totally submersed or have floating leaves. Field transplant experiments with North American plants (R. L. Stuckey et al. 1990) have demonstrated that the non-flowering submersed form can be converted to a flowering mudflat form, and that flowering terrestrial plants can be transformed into non-flowering submersed ones. Consequently, B. umbellatus f. vallisneriifolius is a deep-water growth form and should have no taxonomic systematic status. 

 Two species, Butomus umbellatus and B. junceus Turczaninow, have been recognized in the natural range of the genus (L. C. Anderson et al. 1974), the former from Europe and western Asia, and the latter from eastern Asia. Reportedly, the distinguishing features are shorter scapes, fewer flowers, and a straight stigma for B. junceus as opposed to taller plants, more flowers, and curved stigmas for B. umbellatus.

Studies of Butomus in North America (L. C. Anderson et al. 1974) indicated that apparently the genus has become naturalized in North America at two separate locations, one near Detroit and another in the St. Lawrence River region. It is possible that plants naturalized in the St. Lawrence River region originated in eastern Asia, and those naturalized in the Detroit area originated in Europe or western Asia. 

 A map of Butomus in North America, prepared by R. L. Stuckey (1994), showed that he accepted two species. His map essentially had everything east of Niagara Falls as B. junceus and everything west of the Falls as B. umbellatus. At this time, I do not accept two species in the genus. Should two species be accepted, however, determinations would essentially follow the distribution given by Stuckey. He included dots for B. umbellatus from Indiana and British Columbia. I have not observed specimens from those two areas although the species is certainly to be expected in Indiana, and eventually in British Columbia if it does not already occur there. 

 Butomus umbellatus was first collected in North America near Laprairie on the St. Lawrence River in 1905; it was first observed in 1897 (R. L. Stuckey, pers. comm.). West of Niagara Falls, the taxon was first collected near Detroit in 1930 by O. A. Farwell, although he noted on the specimen, "Has been here since before 1918!!!" (R. L. Stuckey 1968).

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Comments

The leaves are used in making mats and baskets. Baked rootstocks are used as substitute for bread (Fedchinko in Kom., l.c.).
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Eurasian, introduced into North America (FNA, review draft 5/98).

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