Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.:
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Saudi Arabia (Asia)
United States (North America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
Bolivia (South America)
China (Asia)
Colombia (South America)
Ecuador (South America)
Venezuela (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Aloe barbadensis Mill.:
Ecuador (South America)
Gabon (Africa & Madagascar)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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introduced; Ariz., Fla., Tex.; Mediterranean region and Atlantic islands (Canary, Madeira, and Cape Verde).
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Mediterranean & Canary Is., naturalised in Florida, West Indies, Central America & Asia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Elevation Range

1200-1400 m
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Description

Herbs succulent. Stems short, suckering freely to form dense clumps. Leaves sub-basal, slightly distichous in seedlings and new shoots, erect, pale green, sometimes with pale spots in very young plants, linear-lanceolate, 15--35(--50) × 4--5(--7) cm, margin sparsely spiny-dentate, apex 2- or 3-dentate-pointed. Inflorescence erect, 60--90 cm; peduncle to 2 cm thick; raceme 30--40 × 5--6 cm, sometimes with 1 or 2 ascending branches, numerous flowered; bracts whitish, broadly lanceolate, ca. 10 × 5--6 mm, veins 5--7, apex acute. Flowers reflexed; pedicel ca. 1/2 as long as bract. Perianth pale yellow mottled with red, slightly ventricose, 2.5(--3) cm, outer lobes free for ca. 1.8 cm, slightly recurved at apex. Stamens exserted by 4--5 mm. Style conspicuously exserted. 2 n = 14*.
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Description

Plants short-stemmed, woody-based, stoloniferous. Stems to 50 cm; scarious leaf sheaths persistent. Leaves alternate, rosulate to distichous, 10–50 × 10–70 cm; blade glaucous-green to variegated with small white or glaucous dots, irregular bands, or blotches, often reddish near apex or margins, lanceolate to ensate, tapering from base to apex, glabrous, margins green, spiny-toothed, teeth 1–1.5 cm apart. Inflorescences terminal, usually unbranched, racemose, 10–15 dm, usually covered with scalelike bracts; racemes cylindrical, dense, 0.5 m; bracts glabrous or puberulent, with 3 prominent purple veins that are confluent at tips. Flowers: perianth yellow; tepals prominently 3-veined, connate basally for 1/2 their length, lobes broadly linear to oblong-lanceolate, apex rounded; stamens 6, included to slightly exserted, slightly unequal; filaments 2–2.5 cm; anthers 2.5–4 mm; style usually exserted; stigmas not expanded; pedicel 2.2–3.3 cm. Capsules somewhat elongate. 2n = 14.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Aloe perfoliata Linnaeus var. vera Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 320. 1753; A. barbadensis Miller var. chinensis Haworth; A. chinensis (Haworth) Baker; A. vera var. chinensis (Haworth) A. Berger.
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Synonym

Aloe perfoliata Linnaeus var. vera Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 320. 1753; A. barbadensis Miller
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Ecology

Habitat

Hammocks, sandy areas, roadsides, and similar places in full sun; 0 and 1300m.
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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated for medicinal uses, and perhaps naturalized in the hot, dry Yuan Jiang valley in S Yunnan [probably originated in Mediterranean region; widely cultivated and occasionally naturalized elsewhere].
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring--winter, occasionally at other times.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Aloe vera

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Aloe vera

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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Wikipedia

Aloe vera

Aloe vera, also known as the true or medicinal aloe, is a species of succulent plant in the genus Aloe that is believed to have originated in the Sudan.[citation needed] Aloe vera grows in arid climates and is widely distributed in Africa, India, and other arid areas. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine. Many scientific studies of the use of extracts of Aloe vera have been undertaken, some of them conflicting.[1][2][3][4] Despite these limitations, there is some preliminary evidence that Aloe vera extracts may be useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, Sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans.[3] These positive effects are thought to be due to the presence of compounds such as polysaccharides, mannans, anthraquinones, and lectins.[3][5][6]

Contents

Description

Aloe vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 60–100 cm (24–39 in) tall,spreading by offsets. The leaves are thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with some varieties showing white flecks on the upper and lower stem surfaces.[7] The margin of the leaf is serrated and has small white teeth. The flowers are produced in summer on a spike up to 90 cm (35 in) tall, each flower pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long.[7][8] Like other Aloe species, Aloe vera forms arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiosis that allows the plant better access to mineral nutrients in soil.[9]

Taxonomy and etymology

Spotted forms of Aloe vera are sometimes known as Aloe vera var. chinensis.

The species has a number of synonyms: A. barbadensis Mill., Aloe indica Royle, Aloe perfoliata L. var. vera and A. vulgaris Lam.,[10][11] and common names including Chinese Aloe, Indian Aloe, true Aloe, Barbados Aloe, burn Aloe, first aid plant.[8][12][13][14][15] The species name vera means "true" or "genuine."[12] Some literature identifies the white spotted form of Aloe vera as Aloe vera var. chinensis,[16][17] however, the species varies widely with regard to leaf spots [18] and it has been suggested that the spotted form of Aloe vera may be conspecific with A. massawana.[19] The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 as Aloe perfoliata var. vera,[20] and was described again in 1768 by Nicolaas Laurens Burman as Aloe vera in Flora Indica on the 6th of April and by Philip Miller as Aloe barbadensis some ten days after Burman in the Gardener's Dictionary.[21]

Techniques based on DNA comparison suggest that Aloe vera is relatively closely related to Aloe perryi, a species that is endemic to Yemen.[22] Similar techniques, using chloroplast DNA sequence comparison and ISSR profiling have also suggested that Aloe vera is closely related to Aloe forbesii, Aloe inermis, Aloe scobinifolia, Aloe sinkatana, and Aloe striata.[23] With the exception of South African species A. striata, these Aloe species are native to Socotra (Yemen), Somalia, and Sudan.[23] The lack of obvious natural populations of the species have led some authors to suggest that Aloe vera may be of hybrid origin.[24]

Distribution

The natural range of Aloe vera is unclear, as the species has been widely cultivated throughout the world. Naturalised stands of the species occur in the southern half of the Arabian peninsula, through North Africa (Morocco, Mauritania, Egypt) as well as Sudan and neighbouring countries, along with the Canary, Cape Verde, and Madeira Islands.[10] This distribution is somewhat similar to the one of Euphorbia balsamifera, Pistacia atlantica, and a few others, suggesting that a dry sclerophyl forest once covered large areas, but has been dramatically reduced due to desertification in the Sahara, leaving these few patches isolated. Several closely related species (or sometimes identical) can be found on the two extreme sides of the Sahara: Dragon trees and Aeonium being some of the most representative examples.

The species was introduced to China and various parts of southern Europe in the 17th century.[25] The species is widely naturalised elsewhere, occurring in temperate and tropical regions of Australia, Barbados, Belize, Nigeria, Paraguay and the US[18][26] It has been suggested that the actual species' distribution is the result of human cultivation and that the taxonomy could be doubtful too.[19]

Alternative names

  • In India, Aloe vera is known as Korphad, Kattar vazha and various other regional names.
  • In Pakistan, the plant is known as Quargandal.
  • In Indonesia, it is known as Lidah Buaya (or "Crocodile's Tongue").
  • In Thailand, it is known as the "Crocodile Tail".
  • In Vietnam, it is known as the "Nha Đam" plant.
  • In Latin America and the Philippines, it is often called either "Savia", "Savila", or "Sabila".

Cultivation

Aloe vera can be grown as an ornamental plant.

Aloe vera has been widely grown as an ornamental plant. The species is popular with modern gardeners as a putatively medicinal plant and due to its interesting flowers, form, and succulence. This succulence enables the species to survive in areas of low natural rainfall, making it ideal for rockeries and other low-water use gardens.[7] The species is hardy in zones 8–11, although it is intolerant of very heavy frost or snow.[8][27] The species is relatively resistant to most insect pests, though spider mites, mealy bugs, scale insects, and aphid species may cause a decline in plant health.[28][29] In pots, the species requires well-drained sandy potting soil and bright sunny conditions; however, in very hot and humid tropical or subtropical climates, aloe plants should be protected from direct sun and rain, as they will burn and/or turn mushy easily under these conditions. The use of a good-quality commercial propagation mix or pre-packaged "cacti and succulent mix" is recommended, as they allow good drainage.[30] Terracotta pots are preferable as they are porous.[30] Potted plants should be allowed to completely dry prior to re-watering. When potted aloes become crowded with "pups" growing from the sides of the "mother plant," they should be divided and re-potted to allow room for further growth and help prevent pest infestations. During winter, Aloe vera may become dormant, during which little moisture is required. In areas that receive frost or snow, the species is best kept indoors or in heated glasshouses.[8] Large scale agricultural production of Aloe vera is undertaken in Australia,[31] Bangladesh, Cuba,[32] the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico,[33] India,[34] Jamaica,[35] Kenya and South Africa,[36] along with the USA[37] to supply the cosmetics industry with Aloe vera gel.

Uses

Claims of medical properties

Scientific evidence for the cosmetic and therapeutic effectiveness of aloe vera is limited and when present is frequently contradictory.[1][2] Despite this, the cosmetic and alternative medicine industries regularly make claims regarding the soothing, moisturizing, and healing properties of aloe vera, especially via Internet advertising.[3][38][39][40][41] Aloe vera gel is used as an ingredient in commercially available lotion, yogurt, beverages, and some desserts.[42][43][44]

Aloe vera juice is used for consumption and relief of digestive issues such as heartburn and irritable bowel syndrome, although it bears significant potential to be toxic when taken orally.[45] It is common practice for cosmetic companies to add sap or other derivatives from Aloe vera to products such as makeup, tissues, moisturizers, soaps, sunscreens, incense, shaving cream, and shampoos.[42] Other uses for extracts of aloe vera include the dilution of semen for the artificial fertilization of sheep,[46] use as fresh food preservative,[47] and use in water conservation in small farms.[48] The supposed therapeutic uses of Aloe vera are not exclusive to the species and may be found to a lesser or greater degree in the gels of all aloes, and indeed are shared with large numbers of plants belonging to the family Asphodelaceae. Bulbine frutescens, for example, is used widely for the treatment of burns and a host of skin afflictions.[49]

Aloe vera has a long association with herbal medicine, although it is not known when its medical applications were first suspected. Early records of Aloe vera use appear in the Ebers Papyrus from 16th century BCE,[15] in both Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and Pliny the Elder's Natural History written in the mid-first century CE[15] along with the JuliAnicia Codex produced in 512 CE.[42] Aloe vera is non-toxic, with no known side effects, provided the aloin has been removed by processing. Taking aloe vera that contains aloin in excess amounts has been associated with various side-effects.[3][4][50] However, the species is used widely in the traditional herbal medicine of China, Japan, Russia, South Africa, the United States, Jamaica, Latin America and India.[3]

Aloe vera may be effective in treatment of wounds.[4] Evidence on the effects of its sap on wound healing, however, is limited and contradictory.[4] Some studies, for example, show that aloe vera promotes the rates of healing,[51][52] while, in contrast, other studies show that wounds to which aloe vera gel was applied were significantly slower to heal than those treated with conventional medical preparations.[53][54] A more recent review (2007) concludes that the cumulative evidence supports the use of aloe vera for the healing of first to second degree burns.[55] In addition to topical use in wound or burn healing, internal intake of aloe vera has been linked in preliminary research with improved blood glucose levels in diabetics,[56][57] and with lower blood lipids in hyperlipidaemic patients,[58] but also with acute hepatitis (liver disease).[50] In other diseases, preliminary studies have suggested oral aloe vera gel may reduce symptoms and inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis.[59] Compounds extracted from aloe vera have been used as an immunostimulant that aids in fighting cancers in cats and dogs;[5] however, this treatment has not been scientifically tested in humans.

Topical application of aloe vera may be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis.[60] However, it is not effective for the prevention of radiation-induced injuries. Although anecdotally useful, it has not been proven to offer protection from sunburn or suntan.[61] In a double-blind clinical trial, both the group using an aloe vera containing dentifrice and the group using a fluoridated dentifrice had a reduction of gingivitis and plaque, but no statistically significant difference was found between the two.[62]

Aloe vera extracts have antibacterial and antifungal activities, which may help in the treatment of minor skin infections, such as boils and benign skin cysts and have been shown to inhibit the growth of fungi that cause tinea.[63] For bacteria, inner-leaf gel from aloe vera was shown to inhibit growth of Streptococcus and Shigella species in vitro.[64] In contrast, aloe vera extracts failed to show antibiotic properties against Xanthomonas species.[65]

Commodity uses

Aloe vera is now widely used on face tissues, where it is promoted as a moisturiser and/or anti-irritant to reduce chafing of the nose of users suffering hay-fever or cold.[66] It has also been suggested that biofuels could be obtained from Aloe vera seeds.[67] It can also be used to retwist dreadlocked hair, a favourite agent for vegans and those preferring natural products. Aloe vera is also used for soothing the skin, and keeping the skin moist to help avoid flaky scalp and skin in harsh and dry weather. Aloe Vera may also be used as a moisturizer for oily skin.

Historical uses

Aloin was the common ingredient in Over-the-counter drug (OTC) laxative products in the United States prior to 2003, when the Food and Drug Administration ruled that aloin was a class III ingredient, therefore banning its use.[68] It should be noted that processed aloe that contains aloin is used primarily as a laxative, whereas processed Aloe vera juice that does not contain significant amounts of aloin is used as a digestive healer. Manufacturers commonly remove aloin in processing due to the FDA ruling.

Culinary uses

Aloe is also used as a food substance. Some molecular gastronomists have begun to take advantage of its gelling properties. Perhaps the most notable among these is Chef Quique Dacosta's "Oysters Guggenheim," created at El Poblet in Spain.[69]

Biologically active compounds

Aloe vera leaves contain a range of biologically active compounds, the best-studied being acetylated mannans, polymannans, anthraquinone C-glycosides, anthrones and anthraquinones, and various lectins.[3][5][6]

Gallery

Products

Cultivated Aloe vera

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Ernst E (November 2000). "Adverse effects of herbal drugs in dermatology". The British journal of dermatology 143 (5): 923–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2000.03822.x. PMID 11069498. 
  2. ^ a b Marshall JM (2000). "Aloe vera gel: what is the evidence?". Pharm J 244: 360–362. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Boudreau MD, Beland FA (April 2006). "An evaluation of the biological and toxicological properties of Aloe barbadensis (Miller), Aloe vera". Journal of environmental science and health. Part C, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology reviews 24 (1): 103–54. doi:10.1080/10590500600614303. PMID 16690538. 
  4. ^ a b c d Vogler BK, Ernst E (October 1999). "Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness". The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 49 (447): 823–8. PMC 1313538. PMID 10885091. http://openurl.ingenta.com/content/nlm?genre=article&issn=0960-1643&volume=49&issue=447&spage=823&aulast=Vogler. 
  5. ^ a b c King GK, Yates KM, Greenlee PG, et al. (1995). "The effect of Acemannan Immunostimulant in combination with surgery and radiation therapy on spontaneous canine and feline fibrosarcomas". Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 31 (5): 439–47. PMID 8542364. 
  6. ^ a b Eshun K, He Q (2004). "Aloe vera: a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries--a review". Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 44 (2): 91–6. doi:10.1080/10408690490424694. PMID 15116756. 
  7. ^ a b c Yates A. (2002) Yates Garden Guide. Harper Collins Australia
  8. ^ a b c d Random House Australia Botanica's Pocket Gardening Encyclopedia for Australian Gardeners Random House Publishers, Australia
  9. ^ Gong M, Wang F, Chen Y (January 2002). "[Study on application of arbuscular-mycorrhizas in growing seedings of Aloe vera]" (in Chinese). Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials 25 (1): 1–3. PMID 12583231. 
  10. ^ a b "Aloe vera, African flowering plants database". Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. http://www.ville-ge.ch/cjb/bd/africa/details.php?langue=an&id=155971. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  11. ^ "Taxon: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.". Germplasm Resources Information Network, United States Department of Agriculture.. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?Aloe%20vera. Retrieved 2008-07-16. 
  12. ^ a b Ombrello, T. "Aloe vera". http://faculty.ucc.edu/biology-ombrello/POW/Aloe_vera.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  13. ^ Liao Z, Chen M, Tan F, Sun1 X and Tang K (2004) Microprogagation of endangered Chinese aloe Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 76(1):83–86.
  14. ^ Jamir T. T., Sharma H. K., Dolui A. K. (1999). "Folklore medicinal plants of Nagaland, India". Fitoterapia 70 (1): 395–401. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(99)00063-5. 
  15. ^ a b c Barcroft and Myskja (2003) Aloe Vera: Nature's Silent Healer. BAAM, USA. ISBN 095450710X
  16. ^ Wang H, Li F, Wang T, et al. (September 2004). "[Determination of aloin content in callus of Aloe vera var. chinensis]" (in Chinese). Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials 27 (9): 627–8. PMID 15704580. 
  17. ^ Gao W, Xiao P (November 1997). "[Peroxidase and soluble protein in the leaves of Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.)Berger]" (in Chinese). Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica 22 (11): 653–4, 702. PMID 11243179. 
  18. ^ a b Akinyele BO, Odiyi AC (2007). "Comparative study of the vegetative morphology and the existing taxonomic status of Aloe vera L.". Journal of Plant Sciences 2 (5): 558–563. doi:10.3923/jps.2007.558.563. 
  19. ^ a b Lyons G. "The Definitive Aloe vera, vera?". Huntington Botanic Gardens. http://huntingtonbotanical.org/Desert/Cholla/feb06/feb06.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  20. ^ Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Vol. 2 pp. [i], 561–1200, [1–30, index], [i, err.]. Holmiae [Stockholm]: Impensis Laurentii Salvii.
  21. ^ Newton L. E. (1979). "In defense of the name Aloe vera". The Cactus and Succulent Journal of Great Britain 41: 29–30. 
  22. ^ Darokar MP, Rai R, Gupta AK, Shasany AK, Rajkumar S, Sunderasan V and Khanuja SPS (2003). Molecular assessment of germplasm diversity in Aloe spp. using RAPD and AFLP analysis. J Med. Arom. Plant Sci.25(2): 354–361.
  23. ^ a b Treutlein, J., Smith, G. F. S., van Wyk, B. E. & Wink, W. (2003). Phylogenetic relationships in Asphodelaceae (Alooideae) inferred from chloroplast DNA sequences (rbcl, matK) and from genomic finger-printing (ISSR). Taxon 52:193.
  24. ^ Jones WD, Sacamano C. (2000) Landscape Plants for Dry Regions: More Than 600 Species from Around the World. California Bill's Automotive Publishers. USA.
  25. ^ Farooqi and Sreeramu (2001) Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops (Revised Edition). Orient Longman, India. p. 25.
  26. ^ "Global Compendium of Weeds Aloe vera (Aloeaceae)". Global Compendium of Weeds. http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/aloe_vera/. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  27. ^ "BBC Gardening, Aloe vera". British Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.bbc.co.uk/gardening/plants/plant_finder/plant_pages/7686.shtml. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  28. ^ "Pest Alert: Aloe vera aphid Aloephagus myersi Essi.". Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/a-myersi.html. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  29. ^ "Kemper Center for Home Gardening: Aloe vera". Missouri Botanic Gardens, USA. http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/PlantFinder/plant.asp?code=B628. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  30. ^ a b Coleby-Williams, J. "Fact Sheet: Aloes". Gardening Australia, Australian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s2280641.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  31. ^ "Aloe vera producer signs $3m China deal". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2005/12/06/1524745.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  32. ^ "More Medicinal Plants Grow in Ciego de Ávila". invasor.cu. http://www.invasor.cu/sistema/paginas/default.asp?lang=en&id=23062008_More%20Medicinal%20Plants%20Grow%20in%20Ciego%20de%20Avila. Retrieved 2008-06-25. [dead link]
  33. ^ "Korea interested in Dominican ‘aloe vera’". DominicanToday.com—The Dominican Republic News Source in English. http://www.dominicantoday.com/dr/economy/2006/7/7/15337/Korea-interested-in-Dominican-aloe-vera. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  34. ^ Vaibhav Varma. "India experiments with farming medicinal plants". channelnewsasia.com. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/southasia/view/183050/1/.html. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
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Chinese material is smaller in all parts than typical Aloe vera, but not strikingly so, and there does not seem adequate reason to treat it as anything other than a cultivar of the very widely grown species. The origins of A. vera are obscured by the long history of cultivation and the absence of definite wild populations. Aloe indica Royle (Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 1: 390. 1840), from N India, Nepal, and Thailand, is closely related, apparently differing only in having reddish flowers. Flower color is variable in many species of Aloe and it is likely that this species is conspecific with A. vera. All other related taxa are native to NE tropical Africa and Arabia.
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This is the aloe of commerce and source of bitter aloe. Most of the world’s supply is grown in southern Texas and adjacent northwestern Mexico and the West Indies. The species is thought to be native to the Atlantic islands and is widely used as an indoor ornamental. It is often cultivated outdoors in the southwestern United States, where it occasionally escapes.
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Taxonomy

Comments: Probably native of the Mediterranean region, cultivated and naturalized in many parts of the Caribbean region.

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