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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This introduced perennial plant is 1-3' tall and unbranched. The central stem is round and hairless. Sometimes the lower stem becomes draped with the membranous sheaths of the outer layers of its skin and former leaves. These sheaths are brittle, light brown, and dried out. Along the lower half of the stem, there are a few alternate leaves that are up to 10" long and ¾" across at the base. They are linear and sword-shaped, hollow on the inside toward the base, and hairless. Relative to the stem, these fragile and rather floppy leaves are semi-erect, but they often bend at the middle or at the base. Each leaf is more or less round in circumference, becoming slightly flattened on the upper side toward the base, where it wraps around the stem. The central stem terminates in a long naked stalk of flowers and/or aerial bulblets. Usually, a sessile cluster of aerial bulblets is produced; a few flowers on slender pedicels may appear above the bulbets. On rare occasions, an umbel of flowers will develop without bulblets. Regardless of whether flowers or bulblets are produced, the mature inflorescence is about about 2-3" across. During an early stage of development, the entire inflorescence is covered by a sack-like membrane that is rounded at the bottom and pointed at the top. This membrane splits open to release the bulbets and/or flowers. A dried remnant of this membrane usually persists at the base of the inflorescence. The bulblets are green to dark red, about 1/3" long, and ovoid. Each bulblet has a long green tail that is about 1" long. The small flowers are green, white, or light purple. Each flower is about ¼" long, consisting of 6 tepals that are erect or slightly spreading. The blooming period can occur from late spring to mid-summer and lasts about 2-3 weeks. While the flowers are not noticeably fragrant, the foliage has a strong garlic aroma. Each flower is replaced by a 3-celled capsule containing several small black seeds. The root system consists of a bulb with secondary roots. Bulblets are often formed underground as offsets of the mother plant. This plant usually reproduces vegetatively by means of the aerial and underground bulblets, but it can also reproduce by seed when flowers are produced. This plant often forms colonies of variable size.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Field Garlic is the most aggressive Allium sp. in Illinois. Unlike the native Allium spp., it has leaves that are hollow at the base. Among the introduced Allium spp., some species produce only flowers, while others produce aerial bulblets primarily. Field Garlic belongs to this latter group. In this regard, it is similar to Allium sativum (Cultivated Garlic), but the aerial bulblets of Field Garlic have much longer green tails with a striking appearance. While its bulblets can be used to season food like Cultivated Garlic, they have a strong flavor.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Field Garlic is a common plant that occurs in every county of Illinois. It is native to Eurasia. Habitats include prairie remnants and other areas along railroads, degraded meadows near rivers or woodlands, woodland borders and thickets, vacant lots, grassy clay banks, poorly maintained lawns, and waste areas. While this plant is usually found in degraded habitats, it also occurs occasionally in natural habitats, where it can become a pest.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution in Egypt

Mediterranean region.

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Global Distribution

Southern and southeast Europe, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon.

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Allium vineale L.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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introduced; Ont., Que.; Ala., Ark., Calif., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind. Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Va., W.Va.; Europe.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Bulbs 5–20, clustered, stipitate, hard-shelled, asymmetric, ovoid, 1–2 × 1–2 cm; outer coats enclosing bulbs, brownish to yellowish, membranous, vertically striate, splitting into parallel strips and fibers, cells arranged in ± wavy rows, vertical; inner coats white to light brown, cells obscure, vertically elongate. Leaves persistent, green at anthesis, 2–4, sheathing at least proximal 1/2 scape; blade hollow below middle, terete, cylindric or filiform, not carinate, 20–60 cm × 2–4 mm, margins entire. Scape persistent, solitary, erect, terete, 30–120 cm × 1.5–4 mm. Umbel persistent, erect, ± compact, 0–50-flowered, subglobose to ovoid or hemispheric, flowering pedicels all or in part replaced by bulbils; bulbils sessile, basally narrowed, 4–6 × 2–3 mm; spathe bract caducous, 1, 2–several-veined, ovate, apex caudate, beaked, beak ± equaling or longer than base. Flowers campanulate, 3–4 mm; tepals erect, greenish to purple, elliptic-lanceolate, ± equal, withering in fruit, margins entire, apex obtuse; stamens exserted, outer 3 filaments without appendages, inner 3 filaments with 2 prominent lateral appendages; anthers purple; pollen white; ovary crestless; style exserted, linear, ± equaling stamen; stigma capitate, scarcely thickened, unlobed; flowering pedicel 10–20 mm. Seed coat shining; cells smooth. 2n = 32, 40.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Field Garlic is a common plant that occurs in every county of Illinois. It is native to Eurasia. Habitats include prairie remnants and other areas along railroads, degraded meadows near rivers or woodlands, woodland borders and thickets, vacant lots, grassy clay banks, poorly maintained lawns, and waste areas. While this plant is usually found in degraded habitats, it also occurs occasionally in natural habitats, where it can become a pest.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Dry stony places, cultivated and abandoned fields.

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Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Disturbed areas often adjacent to agricultural lands; 0--700m.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

The nectar of the flowers attracts small bees and flower flies. Insects feeding on the bulbs of Allium spp. (Onions) include the maggots of Delia platura (Bean Seed Fly) and Delia antiqua (Onion Fly), while various Frankliniella spp. (Thrips) feed on the foliage. Although mammalian herbivores usually avoid this plant, it is sometimes eaten along with the grass by cattle. In the case of dairy cattle, this can result in milk with a disagreeable odor. The ecological value of this plant to fauna is low.
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Foodplant / saprobe
sclerotium of Botryotinia porri is saprobic on old leaf-sheath base of Allium vineale
Remarks: season: 6-7

Foodplant / parasite
long covered by epidermis telium of Puccinia allii parasitises Allium vineale
Other: major host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
elongated streaks or isolated pustules sorus of Urocystis magica parasitises live, swollen or twisted leaf of Allium vineale
Remarks: season: 4-11

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Jun--Aug.
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Life Expectancy

Perennial.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Allium vineale

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Allium vineale

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

This plant thrives in full or partial sun, moist to slightly dry conditions, and a heavy soil containing some clay. However, other kinds of soil are tolerated as well. This plant can spread aggressively and is difficult to get rid off. Occasionally, it invades lawns, especially when mowing is performed on an irregular basis.
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Wikipedia

Allium vineale

Allium vineale (Wild Garlic, Crow Garlic) is a perennial bulbflower in the genus Allium, native to Europe, north Africa and western Asia. The species was introduced in Australia and North America, where it has become an invasive species.

All parts of the plant have a strong garlic odour. The underground bulb is 1-2 cm diameter, with a fibrous outer layer. The main stem grows to 30-120 cm tall, bearing 2-4 leaves and an apical inflorescence 2-5 cm diameter comprising a number of small bulbils and none to a few flowers, subtended by a basal bract. The leaves are slender hollow tubes, 15-60 cm long and 2-4 mm thick, waxy textured, with a groove along the side of the leaf facing the stem. The flowers are 2-5 mm long, with six petals varying in colour from pink to red or greenish-white. It flowers in the summer, June to August in northern Europe. Plants with no flowers, only bulbils, are sometimes distinguished as the variety Allium vineale var. compactum, but this character is probably not taxonomically significant.

Contents

Uses and problems

While Allium vineale has been suggested as a substitute for garlic, it has an unpleasant aftertaste compared to that of garlic itself. It imparts a garlic-like flavour and odour on dairy and beef products when grazed by livestock. It is considered a pestilential invasive weed, as grain products may become tainted with a garlic odour or flavour in the presence of aerial bulblets at the time of harvest.[1][2][3] Wild garlic is resistant to herbicides due to the structure of its leaves, being vertical, smooth and waxy. Herbicides do not cling well to it and are therefore not as effective.[citation needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Eric Block, "Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science" (Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2010)
  2. ^ James L. Brewster, "Onions and Other Alliums" (Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2008)
  3. ^ Dilys Davies, "Alliums: The Ornamental Onions" (Portland: Timber Press, 1992)

References

  • Block, E. (2010). Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. (Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9. 
  • Brewster, J. L. (2008). Onions and Other Alliums. (Wallingford: CABI Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84593-399-9. 
  • Davies, D. (1992). Alliums: The Ornamental Onions. (Portland: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-241-2. 
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Notes

Comments

Allium vineale is also expected to be found in Wisconsin and Texas; specimens were not seen. It is a noxious weed, apparently introduced from Europe in colonial times. The small, wheat-sized bulbils frequently contaminated wheat grown in infested areas. Bread made from such wheat was garlic-flavored, and cows grazing in infested pastures produce garlic-flavored milk.
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