The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève. External link.
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville. External link.
  • Balick, M. J., M. Nee & D. E. Atha. 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 85: i–ix, 1–246. External link.
  • Binz, A. & Ch. Heitz (1990). Schul- und Exkursions- flora für die Schweiz. Ed. 19. Schwabe, Basel.
  • Breedlove, D. E. 1986. Flora de Chiapas. Listados Floríst. México 4: i–v, 1–246. External link.
  • Brewster, J.L. 2008. Crop production science in horticulture, Volume 15: Onions and other vegetable Alliums. Wallingford, Oxon, Great Britain: CABI Publishing. 2nd ed.
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City. External link.
  • Cope, R.B. 2011. Toxicology brief: Allium species poisoning in cats and dogs. Retrieved 7 October 2011 from
  • Dodson, C. H., A. H. Gentry & F. M. Valverde Badillo. 1985. Fl. Jauneche 1–512. Banco Central del Ecuador, Quito. External link.
  • FAOSTAT 2011. Searchable online database from Food and Agriculture Division of the United Nations. Retrieved 7 October 2011 from
  • Flora of China Editorial Committee. 2000. Fl. China 24: 1–431. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis. External link.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, e. 2002. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. 26: i–xxvi, 1–723. In Fl. N. Amer. Oxford University Press, New York. External link.
  • Fritsch, R.M., and N. Friesen. 2002. "Chapter 1: Evolution, Domestication, and Taxonomy." In H.D. Rabinowitch and L. Currah, eds. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. pp. 5–30. ISBN 0-85199-510-1.
  • García-Mendoza, A. J. & J. Meave del Castillo. 2011. Divers. Florist. Oaxaca 1–351. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria. External link.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. J. Cronquist. 1968. The Pteridophytoa, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae. 1: 1–482. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York. External link.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2013). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Oct 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Grayum, M. H. 2003. Alliaceae. In: Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, B.E. Hammel, M.H. Grayum, C. Herrera & N. Zamora (eds.). Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 92: 43–45. External link.
  • Griffiths, G., L. Trueman, T. Crowther, B. Thomas and B. Smith. 2002. Onions—A global benefit to health. Phytotherapy Research 16: 603–615.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Pp. 1-939. External link.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. External link.
  • L. 1753. In: Sp. Pl. : 300
  • Lauber, K. & G. Wagner (2001). Flora Helvetica. Ed. 3. Haupt, Bern.
  • Lawesson, J. E., H. Adsersen & P. Bentley. 1987. An updated and annotated check list of the vascular plants of the Galapagos Islands. Rep. Bot. Inst. Univ. Aarhus 16: 1–74. External link.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Merck 2011. Poisonous range plants of North America. Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved 7 October 2011 from
  • Molina Rosito, A. 1975. Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1–118. External link.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali (eds). 1980-2005. Fl. Pakistan Univ. of Karachi, Karachi. External link.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. External link.
  • Renner, S. S., H. Balslev & L. B. Holm-Nielsen. 1990. Flowering plants of Amazonian Ecuador---A checklist. AAU Rep. 24: 1–241. External link.
  • Standley, P. C. & J. A. Steyermark. 1952. Liliaceae. In Flora of Guatemala - Part III. Fieldiana, Bot. 24(3): 59–100. External link.
  • Stevens, W. D., C. Ulloa Ulloa, A. Pool & O. M. Montiel. 2001. Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: i–xlii,. External link.
  • USDA PLANTS 2011. “Allium cepa.” In U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, PLANTS Database. Retrieved 7 October 2011 from ALCE.
  • Voss, E. G. 1972. Gymnosperms and Monocots. i–xv, 1–488. In Michigan Fl. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. External link.
  • Wikipedia 2011. “Onion.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 6 May 2011, 23:15 UTC. 22 May 2011.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!