Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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Wikipedia

Shallot

The shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum, or A. cepa Aggregatum group) is the botanical variety of Allium cepa to which the multiplier onion also belongs.[1] It was formerly classified as the species A. ascalonicum, a name now considered a synonym of the correct name.[2] In Australia, the term "shallot" can also refer to scallions, while the term eschalot is used to refer to the shallot described in this article. The term "shallot" is further used for the French gray shallot or griselle, Allium oschaninii, which has been considered to be the "true shallot" by many.[citation needed] It is a species that grows wild from Central to Southwest Asia.

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Details

Shallots probably originated in Central or South-East Asia, traveling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name shallot comes from Ashkelon, an ancient Philistine city in Palestine,[3] where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated.[citation needed]

Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. Their skin color can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. Shallots are much favored by chefs because of their firm texture and sweet, aromatic, yet pungent, flavor.

Shallots for sale in Southern France

As a variety of onion, shallots taste somewhat like a common onion, but have a sweeter, milder, and yet richer and more complex flavor. Shallots tend to be more expensive than onions. They can be stored for at least 6 months.[4]

Shallots are extensively cultivated for use in fresh cooking, in addition to being pickled. Finely sliced deep-fried shallots are used as a condiment in Asian cuisine (often eaten with porridge).

Shallot plant (A. cepa var. aggregatum) growing in Castelltallat, Spain

Shallots are propagated by offsets, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, are often planted in September or October, but the principal crop should not be planted earlier than February or the beginning of March. In planting, the tops of the bulbs should be kept a little above ground, and it is a commendable plan to draw away the soil surrounding the bulbs when their roots have taken hold. They should not be planted on ground recently manured. They come to maturity about July or August, although they can now be found year-round in supermarkets.

Similar to onions, raw shallots release chemicals that irritate the eye when sliced, resulting in tears. See onion for a discussion of this phenomenon.

Onion and shallot output in 2005

Shallots appear to contain more flavonoids and phenols than other members of the onion family.[5]

The term French shallot has also been used for Allium oschaninii.[citation needed]

There is a very specific region of shallot gardening in south eastern Ghana.

Shallots in Persian cooking

The shallot is called موسیر[pronunciation?] in Iran, and is often crushed and mixed with yogurt. Iranians enjoy yogurt in this way, especially in restaurants and Kebab-Saras where just kebabs are served. Most shallots are grown wild, harvested, sliced, dried, and sold at markets. Buyers will often soak the shallots for a number of days then boil them to get a milder flavor.

The Persian shallot is Allium hirtifolium Boiss., and differs from the common shallot. It is white-skinned and each plant has one or rarely two bulbs, while the common shallot is reddish-brown skinned and each plant can contain as many as 15 bulbs. It grows wild across the Zagros Mountains in different provinces of Iran.[6]

Shallots in Indian and South East Asian cooking

Indian names are kanda or gandana (Hindi, Marwari and Punjabi), gundhun (Bengali), Pallari vengayam (Tamil) and cheriya ulli or chuvanna ulli (Malayalam)..

Shallots are called bawang merah kecil (small red onions) in Malay, an official language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, also called Brambang in Java, and hom (หอม, fragrant) in Thai. In Cambodian (Khmer), it is called katem kror hom, where katem or ktem is a species of onion, and kror hom or hom meaning "red", describes its color. In Southeast Asian cuisines, such as Vietnamese, Thai, Cambodian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines, both shallots and garlic (bawang putih, white onions) are very often used as elementary spices. Raw shallot can also accompany cucumbers when pickled in mild vinegar solution. It is also often chopped finely, then fried until golden brown, resulting in tiny crispy shallot chips called bawang goreng (fried onions) in Indonesian language, which can be bought ready-made from groceries and supermarkets. It enhances the flavor of many Southeast Asian dishes, such as fried rice variants. Crispy shallot chips are also used in southern Chinese cuisine. In Indonesia, sometimes it is made into pickle which is usually added in several traditional foods. Its sourness is thought to increase one's appetite.

The shallot is widely used in the southern part of India. In the Kannada language, it is known as chikk-eerulli and used extensively in snacks, salads, curries and rice varieties. It is called chuvannulli in Malayalam and is used in sambar (a tamarind-flavored lentil soup) and different types of kuzhambu (curry).

It is used with sugar cubes as a home remedy for sore throat.

References

  1. ^ Fritsch, R.M.; N. Friesen (2002). "Chapter 1: Evoluion, Domestication, and Taxonomy". In H.D. Rabinowitch and L. Currah. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 0-85199-510-1. 
  2. ^ "Allium ascalonicum information". Germplasm Resources Information Network. USDA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?404738. Retrieved 2010-08-20. 
  3. ^ "shallot". New Oxford American Dictionary (Second ed.). Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN 9780195170771. 
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Yang, J., Meyers, K.J., van der Heide, J. and Liu, R.H. (2004). "Varietal differences in phenolic content, and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of onions". J. Agric. Food Chem 52 (21): 6787–6793. doi:10.1021/jf0307144. PMID 15506817. 
  6. ^ R. Ebrahimia, Z. Zamani, and A. Kash (2009). "Genetic diversity evaluation of wild Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) using morphological and RAPD markers". Scientia Horticulturae 119 (4): 345–351. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2008.08.032. 
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