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BiologyThe species is a short-lived perennial, although it often behaves as an annual. The leaves can develop both below water and above the surface and the flowers appear from June to September. The plant has the ability to self-fertilise and can produce a large quantity of seed. Successful germination may rely on freezing, the disturbance of the mud in which the seed falls or other factors; however it has been found that seeds can survive dormant for at least a few years until conditions become suitable for germination.