The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Caveney, S., D. A. Charlet, H. Freitag, M. Maier-Stolte, and A. N. Starratt. 2001. New observations on the secondary chemistry of world Ephedra (Ephedraceae). American Journal of Botany 88:1199-1208.
  • Chouhdry, A. S. (1984). Karyomorphological and cytological studies in Ephedra. . Journal of Sci. Hiroshima University, Ser. B. 19,
  • Christenhusz, M. J. M., J. L. Reveal, A. K. Farjon, M. F. Gardner, R. R. Mill & M. W. Chase. 2011. A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa 19: 55–70.
  • Forzza, R. C. 2010. Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
  • Freitag, H. and M. Maier-Stolte. 1989. The Ephedra-species of P. Forsskal: identity and typification. Taxon 38:545-556.
  • Friedman, W. E. 1990. Double fertilization in Ephedra, a nonflowering seed plant: Its bearing on the origin of angiosperms. Science 247:951-954.
  • Friedman, W. E. 1990. Sexual reproduction in Ephedra nevadensis (Ephedraceae): Further evidence of double fertilization in a nonflowering seed plant. Am. J. Bot. 77:1582-1598.
  • Huang, J. and R. A. Price. 2003. Estimation of the age of extant Ephedra using chloroplast rbcL sequence data. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20(3):435-440.
  • Huang, J., D. E. Giannasi and R. A. Price. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships in Ephedra (Ephedraceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35(1):48-59.
  • Huang, J., Giannasi D. E., & Price R. A. (2005). Phylogenetic relationships in Ephedra (Ephedraceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 35,
  • Hunziker, J. H. 1995. The karyotypes of Ephedra ochreata, E. rupestris and E. viridis. Darwiniana 33:369-370.
  • Land, W. J. G. 1907. Fertilization and embryogeny in Ephedra trifurca. Bot. Gaz. 44:273-292.
  • Loera, V. and S.M.Ickert-Bond. 2012. Diversification in North American arid lands: Niche conservatism, divergence and expansion of habitat explain speciation in the genus Ephedra. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65(2): 437-450.
  • Luteyn, J. L. 1999. Páramos, a checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 84: viii–xv, 1–278.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali (eds). 1980-2005. Fl. Pakistan Univ. of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Price, R. A. 1996. Systematics of the Gnetales: a review of morphological and molecular evidence. International Journal of Plant Sciences157(6, Suppl.): S40-S49.
  • Rydin, C., K. R. Pedersen, and E. M. Friis. 2004. On the evolutionary history of Ephedra: Cretaceous fossils and extant molecules.
  • Species Plantarum 2: 1040. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • Yang, Y., B.-Y. Geng, D. L. Dilcher, Z.-D. Chen, and T. A. Lott. 2005. Morphology and affinities of an Early Cretaceous Ephedra (Ephedraceae) from China. American Journal of Botany 92:231-241.


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