Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Uvularia perfoliata L.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Ont.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Miss., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Rhizomes short, ca. 1 cm, bearing numerous, clustered, fleshy roots and 1–2 slender, elongate, white stolons to 1.5 dm. Stems 1–several, simple or 1-branched, rounded, 1.5–5 dm, glaucous, bearing (2–)3–4 leaves below lowest branch. Leaf blades perfoliate, ovate to ovate-oblong, 4–20 (–12.5) × 1.5–4(–6) cm, glaucous and smooth abaxially, margins smooth, apex acute to short-acuminate. Flowers 1 per stem; peduncles 1–2 cm, bearing 1 perfoliate bract; tepals straw-yellow, (15–)20–35 × 3–5 mm, orange-papillose adaxially, apex acute; stamens 10–15 mm; anthers 6–10 mm; connectives 1 mm; ovary sessile, obovoid; style 8–10 mm; stigma lobes 3–5 mm. Capsules obovoid-truncate, 3-lobed, 0.7–1.3 × 1–1.6 cm, 2 attenuate beaks per lobe. Seeds 2.5–4.5 mm; arils membranaceous. 2n = 14.
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Ecology

Habitat

Deciduous woods and upland thickets, acid to neutral soils; 0--1000m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring--early summer.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Uvularia perfoliata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Uvularia perfoliata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Uvularia perfoliata

Uvularia perfoliata (known by the common names Perfoliate Bellwort and Wild Oats) is a perennial forb native to the eastern United States and Canada,[2] which produces pale yellow flowers in spring.

Description[edit]

Botanical illustration of Uvularia perfoliata (1913)

The smooth slender stem of Uvularia perfoliata is 15 to 50 centimeters tall, and forked above the middle. The leaves are obovate, 4 to 12 centimeters long and 1.5 to 4 centimeters wide, glabrous or glaucous, and perfoliate. There are usually 1 to 4 leaves below the fork in the stem. The stems bear a single downward drooping flower with six 2 to 3.5 centimeter long tepals which are granular on the inside. The fruit is a triangular three lobed capsule 7 to 13 millimeters in length.[3][4][5]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Uvularia perfoliata is widely distributed in the eastern United States, although local distribution may be spotty. It has been recorded in Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Washington, D.C., Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, and West Virginia. It has also been recorded in the Canadian province of Ontario. It is listed as an endangered species by the states of Indiana and New Hampshire.[2] In Virginia, it grows in habitats such as floodplain forests, but also mesic upland forests, and dry rocky woodlands.[6] The presence of this species is dependent on appropriate habitat, and it may be eliminated from an area by development, changes in land use, or competition with invasive species.

Taxonomy[edit]

This species is a member of the genus Uvularia, which was formerly placed in the Liliaceae family, but has more recently been placed in the Colchicaceae family, in keeping with the findings of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Uvularia perfoliata L. - The Plant List". Retrieved January 26, 2014.  The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; http://www.theplantlist.org/
  2. ^ a b "Plants Profile for Uvularia perfoliata (perfoliate bellwort)". Retrieved January 26, 2014.  USDA, NRCS. 2014. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.
  3. ^ Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Brown, Addison (1913). An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions: From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian, Volume 1., p. 518. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  4. ^ "Uvularia perfoliata (perfoliate bellwort): Go Botany". Retrieved February 9, 2014.  Copyright © 2011-2013 New England Wild Flower Society (http://www.newenglandwild.org)
  5. ^ "Uvularia perfoliata in Flora of North America @ efloras.org". Retrieved February 9, 2014.  'eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet (http://www.efloras.org). Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  6. ^ "Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora | Uvularia perfoliata L.". Retrieved January 26, 2014.  Virginia Botanical Associates. (2014). Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora (http://www.vaplantatlas.org). c/o Virginia Botanical Associates, Blacksburg.
  7. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 141:399-436., cited in Walter Fertig "Farewell to the Aceraceae: Changes in the Angiosperm Family Tree". Retrieved February 9, 2014.  The University of Montana Herbarium Newsletter. (Spring 2011). University of Montana, Missoula, MT. http://herbarium.dbs.umt.edu
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Notes

Comments

Detailed life-history studies of Uvularia perfoliata (D. F. Whigham 1974; D. K. Wijesinghe and D. F. Whigham 1997, 2001; H. Kudoh et al. 1999) have established the genetic basis of its clonal structure.
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