Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Ont.; Ark., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., Ohio, Okla., S.Dak., Tenn., Wis.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs. Stems annual, erect to leaning, with bladeless bracts proximally, leaves distally, 0.3–0.8 m, herbaceous; prickles absent. Leaves mostly distal (upper 1/2–2/3 of plant); petiole thin, shorter than blade; tendrils few and short or absent; blade thin, broadly elliptic-ovate to subrotund, 9–12 × 5–9 cm, pubescent and not glaucous abaxially, base cordate to truncate, margins entire, convex, apex round to acuminate. Umbels 1–3, proximalmost axillary to bracts below leaves, to 25-flowered, hemispherical to globose. Flowers: perianth green; tepals 3.5–4 mm; anthers ± equaling filaments; ovules (1–)2 per locule; pedicel 0.5–1.3 cm. Berries purplish black, globose, 9–11 mm, not glaucous. 2n = 52.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Coprosmanthus ecirrhatus (S. Watson) Chapman; C. herbaceus (Linnaeus) Kunth var. ecirratus Engelmann ex Kunth; Nemexia ecirrata (Engelmann ex Kunth) Small (as ecirrhata); Smilax herbacea Linnaeus var. ecirrata (Engelmann ex Kunth) A. de Candolle
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Ecology

Habitat

Open woods and thickets; 100--800m.
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Upright Carrion Flower in Illinois

Smilax ecirrhata (Upright Carrion Flower)
(bees suck nectar or collect pollen, flies suck nectar or feed on pollen, while other insects suck nectar; all observations are from Graenicher)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon melliventris cp, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn cp, Lasioglossum reticulatus sn cp; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena sp. cp

Flies
Tipulidae: Tipula fulvilineata sn/fp; Syrphidae: Eristalis arbustorum sn/fp, Toxomerus geminatus sn/fp; Tachinidae: Gonia capitata sn/fp; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura sn/fp, Phorbia spp. sn/fp; Calliphoridae: Calliphora splendida sn/fp, Calliphora vicina sn/fp, Calliphora vomitoria sn/fp, Lucilia illustris sn/fp, Lucilia sericata sn/fp, Phormia regina sn/fp, Pollenia rudis sn/fp, Protophormia terraenovae sn/fp; Muscidae: Clinopera sp. sn/fp (Gr, 1902), Drymeia sp. sn/fp, Hemichlora sp. sn/fp (Gr, 1902), Hydrotaea sp. sn/fp, Morellia micans sn/fp, Myospila meditabunda sn/fp, Neomyia cornicina sn/fp; Sarcophagidae: Helicobia spp. sn/fp, Helicobia rapax sn/fp, Sarcophaga spp. sn/fp, Sarcophaga sarracenioides sn/fp; Scathophagidae: Scathophaga furcata sn/fp; Chloropidae: Thaumatomyia glabra sn/fp, Thaumatomyia grata sn/fp; Platystomatidae: Rivellia flavimana sn/fp; Otitidae: Chaetopsis aenea sn/fp; Sepsidae: Sepsis vicaria sn/fp; Sphaeroceridae: Copromyza equina sn/fp; Piophilidae: Piophila casei sn/fp

Beetles
Cerambycidae: Analeptura lineola sn, Brachysomida bivittata sn; Elateridae: Cardiophorus obscurus sn; Melyridae: Malachius montanus sn, Malachius thevenetti sn; Orsodacnidae: Orsodacne atra sn; Pyrochroidae: Pedilus lugubris sn

Plant Bugs
Thyreocoridae: Corimelaena lateralis sn

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering May--Jun.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Smilax ecirrata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Smilax ecirrata

Smilax ecirrata, the upright carrion-flower, is a species of flowering plant in the Greenbriar family. It is native largely to the Midwestern United States, being found in rich, calcareous forests along floodplains.[1] It is an herbaceous plant that has green umbels of flowers in late spring.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smilax ecirrata at the University of Michigan Herbarium


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Notes

Comments

Smilax ecirrhata is similar to S. huberi and S. biltmoreana, both with fewer leaves of different shapes.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The spelling of the scientific name is 'Smilax ecirrhata', but appears to have been erroneously spelled as 'Smilax ecirrata' in some sources including Kartesz (1999, 1994). Most current sources spell the name including the 'h', however, FNA (2002, vol. 26) lists 'ecirrata' but spells it 'ecirrhata' in the text. The International Plant Name Index (as of April 2012) has an entry for each spelling: in the entry for Smilax ecirrata (Engelm. ex. Kunth) S. Wats. it says the name was published as "ecirrhata" and has the remark, "Reference to the basionym lacking; Vienna Code Art. 33.3 applies. In ed. 7 (p. 295. 1908) and ed. 8 (p. 449. 1950), "S. ecirrhata (Engelm.) S. Wats." was treated as a new combination."

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