Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Smilax tamnoides var. hispida (Muhl. ex Torr.) Fernald:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Smilax tamnoides L.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Smilax hispida var. australis J.B. Norton:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Smilax grandifolia Regel:
Brazil (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Ont.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Vines; rhizomes knotty, short. Stems perennial, climbing, branching, terete, to 7+ m × 9 mm, woody, glabrous, with prickles proximally, prickles usually absent distally; prickles blackish, unequal, 3–10+ mm, bristly, flexible. Leaves ± persistent in southern part of range, deciduous in north; petiole 1–2 cm; blade green, drying to light olive-gray, ovate-lanceolate, ovate, or sometimes pandurate, prominently reticulate, thin, 5–13 × 3–10 cm, not glaucous, glabrous (to prickly on major veins abaxially), base rounded to cordate, margins entire apically, minutely serrulate basally, thin, flat, not banded, not lobed, apex pointed. Umbels many, axillary to leaves, to 25-flowered, open to dense, spherical; peduncle often drooping, 1.5–6.5 cm. Flowers: peri-anth green to bronze; tepals 4–5 mm; anthers ± equaling to shorter than filaments; ovule 1 per locule; pedicel 0.4–1.2 cm. Berries black, globose, 6–10 mm, not glaucous.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Smilax grandifolia Buckley; S. hispida Muhlenberg ex Torrey; S. hispida var. australis Small; S. hispida var. montana Coker; S. tamnoides var. hispida (Muhlenberg ex Torrey) Fernald
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Type Information

Type fragment for Smilax grandifolia Regel
Catalog Number: US 1635978
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): ex herb. Gray
Locality: E of Monserrat, Mexico, Central America
  • Type fragment: Regel, E. A. von. 1856. Index Sem. Hort. Petrop. 16.
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Ecology

Habitat

Wet to dry woods, thickets, bottomlands; 0--400m.
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Bristly Greenbrier in Illinois

Smilax tamnoides var. hispida (Bristly Greenbrier)
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, flies suck nectar or feed on pollen, while other insects suck nectar; this plant species is also referred to as Smilax hispida; one observation is from Knab as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Robertson and Graenicher)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp (Rb); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp (Rb); Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada articulata sn (Gr), Nomada maculata sn (Gr), Nomada parva sn (Rb); Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia pumila sn cp (Rb)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn cp (Rb, Gr), Augochlorella striata sn cp (Rb), Lasioglossum coriaceus sn (Gr), Lasioglossum forbesii sn (Gr), Lasioglossum macoupinensis sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum pectoralis cp (Rb), Lasioglossum reticulatus sn (Gr), Lasioglossum tegularis sn cp (Rb), Lasioglossum zephyrus cp (Rb); Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes confertus sn (Gr), Sphecodes dichroa sn (Gr); Colletidae (Hylaeninae): Hylaeus modestus modestus sn (Gr); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena sp. sn (Gr), Andrena cressonii sn cp (Rb), Andrena forbesii sn (Gr), Andrena rugosa sn (Gr)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi sn (Gr); Ichneumonidae: Tryphon sp. sn (Gr); Gasteruptiidae: Gasteruption assectator sn (Gr); Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus sn (Gr), Euodynerus foraminatus sn (Gr)

Flies
Culicidae: Aedes stimulans sn (Knb, Gr); Agromyzidae: Calycomyza jucunda sn/fp (Gr); Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua sn/fp (Rb, Gr), Eristalis arbustorum sn/fp (Gr), Eupeodes americanus fp (Rb), Helophilus fasciatus sn/fp (Gr), Syrphus ribesii sn/fp (Gr), Toxomerus geminatus sn/fp (Rb, Gr); Empididae: Empis loripedis sn (Rb); Conopidae: Physoconops brachyrhynchus sn (Rb); Tachinidae: Siphona geniculata sn/fp (Gr); Anthomyiidae: Delia platura sn/fp (Gr); Calliphoridae: Pollenia rudis sn/fp (Gr), Lucilia illustris sn/fp (Gr); Muscidae: Coenosia sp. sn/fp (Gr); Sarcophagidae: Helicobia rapax sn/fp (Gr), Sarcophaga sp. sn/fp (Gr); Scathophagidae: Scathophaga furcata sn/fp (Gr); Lonchaeidae: Lonchaea polita sn/fp (Gr), Minettia lupulina sn/fp (Gr), Poecilolycia quadrilineata sn/fp (Gr); Sepsidae: Sepsis vicaria sn/fp (Gr); Chloropidae: Meromyza americana sn/fp (Gr)

Beetles
Pyrochroidae: Pedilus collaris sn (Gr)

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Adelphocoris superbus sn (Gr)

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering May--Jun.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Smilax hispida

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Smilax hispida

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Smilax tamnoides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Notes

Comments

Smilax tamnoides is marked by its dark, flexible, and unequal bristles and leaves with minutely serrulate margins basally. The far-western S. californica appears to be closely related but lacks the serrulate margins of the leaf bases.
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