The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1.  White, D. J.; Maher, R. V.; Argus, G. W. 1982. Smilax rotundifolia L.        In: Argus, George W.; White, David J., eds. Atlas of the rare vascular        plants of Ontario. Part 1. Ottawa, ON: National Museums of Canada,        National Museum of Natural Sciences. 1 p.  [23478]
  • 12.  Smith, Robert L. 1974. Greenbriers: common greenbrier; cat greenbrier.        In: Gill, John D.; Healy, William M, compilers. Shrubs and vines for        northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-9. Upper Darby, PA: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station: 54-58.  [23408]
  • 13.  Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of        northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New        York Botanical Garden. 910 p.  [20329]
  • 14.  Godfrey, Robert K.; Wooten, Jean W. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of        southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Athens, GA: The University of        Georgia Press. 933 p.  [16907]
  • 15.  Goodrum, Phil D. 1977. Greenbriers/Smilax spp. In: Halls, Lowell K., ed.        Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep.        SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Southern Region, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 111-116.  [23479]
  • 16.  Goodrum, Phil D.; Reid, Vincent H. 1958. Deer browsing in the longleaf        pine belt. In: Proceedings, 58th annual meeting of the Society of        American Foresters; [Date of meeting unknown]
  • 17.  Greller, Andrew M. 1977. A classification of mature forests on Long        Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 104(4):        376-382.  [22020]
  • 18.  Gunasekaran, M.; Weber, D. J.; Sanderson, S.; Devall, Margaret M. 1992.        Reanalysis of the vegetation of Bee Branch Gorge Research Natural Area,        a hemlock-beech community on the Warrior River Basin of Alabama.        Castanea. 57(1): 34-45.  [20436]
  • 19.  Hall, Christine N.; Kuss, Fred R. 1989. Vegetation alteration along        trails in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Biological Conservation.        48: 211-227.  [9306]
  • 2.  Baird, John W. 1980. The selection and use of fruit by birds in an        eastern forest. Wilson Bulletin. 92(1): 63-73.  [10004]
  • 20.  Hemond, Harold F.; Niering, William A.; Goodwin, Richard H. 1983. Two        decades of vegetation change in the Connecticut Arboretum Natural Area.        Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 110(2): 184-194.  [9045]
  • 21.  Hunter, Carl G. 1989. Trees, shrubs, and vines of Arkansas. Little Rock,        AR: The Ozark Society Foundation. 207 p.  [21266]
  • 22.  Kevan, Peter G.; Ambrose, John D.; Kemp, James R. 1991. Pollination in        an understorey vine, Smilax rotundifolia, a threatened plant of the        Carolinian forests in Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany. 69: 2555-2559.        [17567]
  • 24.  Martin, Ben F.; Tucker, S. C. 1985. Developmental studies in Smilax        (Liliaceae). I. Organography and the shoot apex. American Journal of        Botany. 72(1): 66-74.  [15086]
  • 25.  Moore, Julie H.; Carter, J. H., III. 1987. Habitats of white cedar in        North Carolina. In: Laderman, Aimlee D., ed. Atlantic white cedar        wetlands. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 26.  Newling, Charles J. 1990. Restoration of bottomland hardwood forests in        the lower Mississippi Valley. Restoration & Management Notes. 8(1):        23-28.  [14611]
  • 27.  Niering, William A. 1981. The role of fire management in altering        ecosystems. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.;        [and others]
  • 28.  Niering, William A.; Dreyer, Glenn D. 1989. Effects of prescribed        burning on Andropogon scoparius in postagricultural grasslands in        Connecticut. American Midland Naturalist. 122: 88-102.  [8768]
  • 29.  Niering, William A.; Goodwin, Richard H. 1974. Creation of relatively        stable shrublands with herbicides: arresting "succession" on        rights-of-way and pastureland. Ecology. 55: 784-795.  [8744]
  • 30.  Pogge, Franz L.; Bearce, Bradford C. 1989. Germinating common and cat        greenbrier. Tree Planters' Notes. 40(1): 34-37.  [23409]
  • 31.  Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of        the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of        North Carolina Press. 1183 p.  [7606]
  • 33.  Roland, A. E. 1991. Coastal-plain plants in inland Nova Scotia. Rhodora.        93(875): 291-298.  [16490]
  • 34.  Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS:        Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p.  [13158]
  • 35.  Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life        Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p.  [12907]
  • 37.  Stransky, John J.; Halls, Lowell K. 1979. Effect of a winter fire on        fruit yields of woody plants. Journal of Wildlife Management. 43(4):        1007-1010.  [9660]
  • 4.  Blair, Robert M. 1960. Deer forage increased by thinnings in a Louisiana        loblolly pine plantation. Journal of Wildlife Management. 24(4):        401-405.  [16891]
  • 40.  Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest.        Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p.  [7707]
  • 41.  Wendel, G. W.; Kochenderfer, J. N. 1982. Glyphosate controls hardwoods        in West Virginia. Res. Pap. NE-497. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 7        p.  [9869]
  • 42.  Whittaker, R. H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains.        Ecological Monographs. 26(1): 1-79.  [11108]
  • 43.  Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue        Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p.  [12908]
  • 44.  Reiners, W. A. 1965. Ecology of a heath-shrub synusia in the pine        barrens of Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.        92(6): 448-464.  [22835]
  • 45.  Wendel, G. W.; Storey, T. G.; Byram, G. M. 1962. Forest fuels on organic        and associated soils in the coastal plain of North Carolina. Station        Paper No. 144. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 46 p.  [21669]
  • 46.  Chapman, Rachel Ross; Crow, Garrett E. 1981. Application of Raunkiaer's        life form system to plant species survival after fire. Torrey Botanical        Club. 108(4): 472-478.  [7432]
  • 47.  Bovey, Rodney W. 1977. Response of selected woody plants in the United        States to herbicides. Agric. Handb. 493. Washington, DC: U.S. Department        of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 101 p.  [8899]
  • 5.  Carter, Gregory A.; Teramura, Alan H. 1988. Vine photosynthesis and        relationships to climbing mechanics in a forest understory. American        Journal of Botany. 75(7): 1011-1018.  [9317]
  • 6.  Crandall, Dorothy L. 1958. Ground vegetation patterns of the spruce-fir        area of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Ecological Monographs.        28(4): 337-360.  [11226]
  • 7.  Cross, Shirley G. 1992. An indigenous population of Clintonia borealis        (Liliaceae) on Cape Cod. Rhodora. 94(877): 98-99.  [18125]
  • 8.  DeWitt, James B.; Derby, James V., Jr. 1955. Changes in nutritive value        of browse plants following forest fires. Journal of Wildlife Management.        19(1): 65-70.  [7343]
  • 9.  Ehrenfeld, Joan G. 1986. Wetlands of the New Jersey Pine Barrens: the        role of species composition in community function. American Midland        Naturalist. 115(2): 301-313.  [8650]
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro, and Mark T. Strong. 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, no. 98. xxv+1192
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2013). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Oct 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • L. 1753. In: Sp. Pl. : 1030
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Species Plantarum 2: 1030. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)
  • Thornhill, Robert, Krings, Alexander, Lindbo, David, Stucky, Jon (2014): Guide to the Vascular Flora of the Savannas and Flatwoods of Shaken Creek Preserve and Vicinity (Pender & Onslow Counties, North Carolina, U. S. A.). Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1099: 1099-1099, URL:
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.


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