Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 32 specimens in 11 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 1.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial or partly immersed perithecium of Amphisphaeria melanommoides is saprobic on dead rhizome of Spartina

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Arthrinium dematiaceous anamorph of Arthrinium phaeospermum is saprobic on dead stem of Spartina
Remarks: season: esp. 7-8

Plant / resting place / on
larva of Bolothrips dentipes may be found on base of Spartina
Remarks: season: 7-9

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
Embellisia dematiaceous anamorph of Embellisia phragmospora is saprobic on dead, rotten leaf of Spartina

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, superficial or partly immersed perithecium of Gnomonia salina is saprobic on dead stem of Spartina
Remarks: season: 11-12

Foodplant / saprobe
Haligena elaterophora is saprobic on Spartina

Foodplant / saprobe
solitary, immersed perithecium of Halosarpheia spartinae is saprobic on dead, fallen stem of Spartina

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent pseudothecium of Leptosphaeria orae-maris is saprobic on dead Spartina

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent pseudothecium of Leptosphaeria pelagica is saprobic on dead Spartina

Foodplant / parasite
Ligniera junci parasitises live root hair of Spartina

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Micronectriella agropyri is saprobic on dead leaf of Spartina

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent pseudothecium of Passeriniella obiones is saprobic on dead stem of Spartina
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Phaeosphaeria albopunctata is saprobic on dead Spartina

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent pseudothecium of Phaeosphaeria neomaritima is saprobic on dead Spartina

Foodplant / saprobe
Phialophorophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phialophorophoma litoralis is saprobic on dead Spartina

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Stagonospora coelomycetous anamorph of Pleospora spartinae is saprobic on dead stem of Spartina
Remarks: season: 9

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Sphaerulina pedicellata is saprobic on dead stem of Spartina
Remarks: season: 5-6

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent pseudothecium of Wettsteinina marina is saprobic on dead Spartina

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Known predators

Spartina is prey of:
Prokelisia
Orchelimum
Streblospio
Capitella
Manayunkia
Littorina
Modiolus
Sesarma
Uca

Based on studies in:
USA: Georgia (Marine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:29
Specimens with Sequences:46
Specimens with Barcodes:32
Species:11
Species With Barcodes:10
Public Records:18
Public Species:6
Public BINs:0
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Spartina

For the production company, see Spartina Productions.

Spartina, commonly known as cordgrass or cord-grass,[3] is a genus of plants in the grass family, frequently found in coastal salt marches.[4]

The genus name is derived from σπαρτίνη (spartiné), the Greek word for a cord made from Spanish broom (Spartium junceum).[5] They are native to the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean in western and southern Europe, northwest and southern Africa, the Americas and the southern Atlantic Ocean islands; one or two species also occur on the North American Pacific Ocean coast and in freshwater habitats inland in the Americas. The highest species diversity is on the east coasts of North and South America, particularly Florida.

They form large, often dense colonies, particularly on coastal salt marshes, and grow quickly. The species vary in size from 0.3–2 m tall. Many of the species will produce hybrids if they come into contact.

Species[2][6][3][7][8]
  1. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. – Smooth Cordgrass - Atlantic coasts of North + South America, West Indies
  2. Spartina anglica C.E.Hubb. – Common Cordgrass - Great Britain; introduced scattered other places
  3. Spartina arundinacea (Thouars) Carmich - Tristan da Cunha, Amsterdam Island in Indian Ocean
  4. Spartina bakeri Merr. – Sand Cordgrass - southeastern USA
  5. Spartina × caespitosa A.A.Eaton – Short Cordgrass - eastern USA + Canada (PEI to VA)
  6. Spartina ciliata Brongn. - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay
  7. Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Roth – Big Cordgrass - eastern USA (TX to MA); Tamaulipas, Chihuahua, Bahamas
  8. Spartina densiflora Brongn. – Denseflower Cordgrass - Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile
  9. Spartina foliosa Trin. – California Cordgrass - California, Baja California, Baja California Sur
  10. Spartina gracilis Trin. – Alkali Cordgrass - western Canada, western + central USA, Chihuahua, Jalisco, Michoacán
  11. Spartina longispica Hauman & Parodi ex St.-Yves - Argentina, Uruguay
  12. Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald – Small Cordgrass - Great Britain, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Croatia, Morocco, Mauritania, Namibia, South Africa
  13. Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl – Saltmeadow Cordgrass - east coast of North America from Labrador to Tamaulipas; West Indies
  14. Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link – Prairie Cordgrass from Northwest Territories to Texas + Newfoundland
  15. Spartina spartinae (Trin.) Merr. ex Hitchc. – Gulf Cordgrass - Atlanic coast of North America from Florida to Argentina, incl Caribbean + Gulf of Mexico
  16. Spartina × townsendii H.Groves & J.Groves (S. alterniflora × S. maritima) – Townsend's Cordgrass - western Europe
  17. Spartina versicolor Fabre - Mediterranean, Azores
formerly included[2]

see Bouteloua Crypsis Dactylis Digitaria

Cultivation[edit]

Spartina has been planted by humans to reclaim estuarine areas for stripping, to supply fodder for livestock, and to prevent erosion. Various members of the genus (especially Spartina alterniflora and its derivatives, Spartina anglica and Spartina × townsendii) have spread outside of their native boundaries and become invasive.

Big Cordgrass (S. cynosuroides) is used in the construction of bull's eye targets for sports archery. A properly constructed Spartina target can stop an arrow safely without damage to the arrowhead as it lodges in the target.[9]

Ecology[edit]

Spartina species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Aaron's Skipper (which feeds exclusively on Smooth Cordgrass) and Engrailed.

As an invasive species[edit]

Three of the Spartina species have become invasive plants in some countries. In British Columbia, Spartina anglica, also known as English Cordgrass, is an aggressive, aquatic alien that invades mud flats, salt marshes and beaches, out-competing native plants, spreading quickly over mud flats and leaving large Spartina meadows.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genus: Spartina Schreb.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2011-02-27. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  2. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ a b "Spartina". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  4. ^ Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel von. 1789. Genera Plantarum Eorumque Characteres Naturales Secundum Numerum, Figuram, Situm, & Proportionem Omnium Fructificationis Partium. (Ed. 8[a]). 43
  5. ^ Barkworth, Mary E. "17.45 SPARTINA Schreb.". Intermountain Herbarium. Utah State University. Retrieved 2013-11-30. 
  6. ^ The Plant List search for Spartina
  7. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Spartina". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  8. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
  9. ^ "Bull's-eye Builder". Popular Mechanics: pp. 126–127. June 1952. 
  10. ^ Spartina, Aliens Among Us.
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