The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arment, C. 2006. Stick Insects of the Continental United States And Canada: Species And Early Studies. Landisville, Pennsylvania: Coachwhip Publications.
  • Brock P. (2015). PhasmidaSF: Phasmida Species File (version 5.0, Jun 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Brunner von Wattenwyl. 1907. (Usually bound in one volume, Brunner & Redtenbacher 1906-08, published in three parts: Redtenbacher 1906, 1908; Brunner 1907). Die Insektenfamilie der Phasmiden. II. Phasmidae Anareolatae (Clitumnini, Lonchodini, Bacunculini)., Verlag Engelmann, Leipzig Phasmiden:181-338, pls 7-15
  • Burmeister. 1838. Handbuch der Entomologie, T.C.F. Enslin, Berlin 2:457-756
  • Clark, J. 1974. Stick and Leaf Insects. Great Britain: Barry Shurlock.
  • Coulson, R., J. Witter. 1984. Forest Entomology: Ecology and Management. USA: Wiley-IEEE.
  • Giese, R., K. Knauer. 1977. Ecology of the Walkingstick. Forest Science, 23(1): 45-63.
  • Gosse. 1859. Lett. Alabama
  • Gray, G.R. 1835. Synopsis of the species of insects belonging to the family of Phasmidae., Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman, London 1-48
  • Gregory, T. 2002. Genome size of the northern walkingstick, Diapheromera femorata (Phasmida: Heteronemiidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80(7): 1303-1305.
  • Huber, B., B. Sinclair, M. Schmitt. 2007. The Evolution of Asymmetric Genitalia in Spiders and Insects. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 82(4): 647-698.
  • Hughes, L., M. Westoby. 1992. Capitula on Stick Insect Eggs and Elaiosomes on Seeds: Convergent Adaptations for Burial by Ants. Functional Ecology, 6(6): 642-648.
  • Millron, H. 1950. The Identity of a Cleptid Egg Parasite of the Common Walking Stick, Diapheromera femorata Say (Hymenoptera: Cleptidae). The Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 52(1): 47.
  • Milne, L. 1980. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects & Spiders. New York: Alfred A, Knopf, Inc..
  • Otte, Daniel, and Paul Brock. 2003. Phasmida Species File: A Catalog of the Stick and Leaf Insects of the World. 505
  • Say. 1824. Long Expedit. 2
  • Scudder, S.H. 1901. The species of Diapheromera (Phasmidae) found in the United States and Canada. Psyche 9:187-189
  • Severin, H. 1910. A Study on the Structure of the Egg of the Walking Stick Diapheromera femorata Say; and the Biological Significance of the Resemblance of Phasmid Eggs to Seeds. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 3(1): 83-93.
  • Stephen, F., V. Salisbury, F. Oliveria. 2001. Red Oak Borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas, U.S.A.: An unexpected and Remarkable Forest Disturbance. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 6(3-4): 247-252.
  • Taylor, P.E. 1862. Harper’s New mon. mag. 24(142)
  • Tilgner, E., T. Kiselyova, J. McHugh. 1999. A morphological study of Timema cristinae vickery with implications for the phylogenetics of phasmida. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 46(2): 149-162.
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 82: Walkingstick. 82. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1971. Accessed March 30, 2011 at
  • Walker, E. 1922. The Terminal Structures of Orthopteroid Insects: A Phylogenetic Study. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 15(1): 1-71.


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