Overview

Brief Summary

Bambusa is a genus of bamboos with more than 100 species of tall, woody, perennial grasses (subfamily Bambusoideae of family Poaceae), native to tropical and subtropical Asia but now cultivated in tropical areas around the world. China has 67 endemic Bambusa species, mostly in the south and southwest, with an additional 13 species that are native but occur in a larger region (Flora of China 2011). Bamboo species in this and other genera in the Bambuseae have numerous uses as food, fiber, and construction material, worth over $2 billion in 2000 (Lobovikov 2007), and play an important role in Asian culture, history, and ritual.

Bambusa species are characterized by a prominent rhizome system, woody, branching culms (stems), and leaf blades with petioles (McClure 1966). They grow 2–35 meters tall (Watson 1992) and are a clumping (pachymorph) type, in which rhizomes develop new culms close to the parent plants (rather than the running, or leptomorph, type characteristic of the species with serious invasive potential, in which rhizomes can grow 9–10 meters (30 feet) per year, sending up new culms along the full length; Waynesword 2011).

Many Bambusa species have been cultivated for so long that there are few, if any, populations known in the wild. These species are cultivated for a large range of uses (Flora of China 2011, Watson and Dallwitz 1992): for construction, scaffolding, and building materials (B. arundinacea, B. dissemulator, B. duriuscula, B. gibba, B. lapidea, B. malingensis, B. pervariabilis, B. rigida, B. sinospinosa, B. tuldoides, and B. vulgaris); split and woven into mats and other goods (B. albolineata, B. chungii, B. lenta, and B. textilis); for fishing rods, ski poles and furniture (B. pervariabilis), and for pulp and fiber for paper and rayon (B. guadua, among others). Several species are cultivated for their edible shoots (B. gibboides, B. variostriata). A number of species are famous for their use as ornamentals (B. multiplex, B. ventricosa, and B. vulgaris); some are used for hedges and property markings (B. flexuosa, B. gibba, B. sinospinosa). Various of the species are used for medicinal purposes, including as a febrifuge (to lower fever) and anti-emetic (to stop vomiting) and to treat kidney troubles and hematuria (ISSG 2011, Ngoc and Borton 2007).

Due to their fast growth and clonal habit, bamboo species may become weedy or invasive, although the pachymorph types do not generally spread as rapidly as the leptomorph types. Some Bambusa species, such as B. vulgaris, are classified as invasive in various Pacific islands (including in the Cook Islands, Fiji, Micronesia, the Philippines, and New Zealand), where they may colonize along streams and form dense monotypic stands despite their clumping habit (ISSG 2011, PIER 2011).

  • Lobovikov, M., S. Paudel, M. Piazza, H. Ren, and J. Wu. 2007. World bamboo resources: A thematic study prepared in the framework of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 73 p.
  • ISSG. 2011. Bambusa vulgaris. Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 8 November 2011 from http://www.issg.org/database/species/search.asp?sts=sss&st=sss&fr=1&sn=bambusa&rn=&hci=-1&ei=-1&lang=EN.
  • Ngoc, H., and L. Borton, eds. 2006. Bamboo. Hanoi: Thê’ Gió’I Publishers. 88 p.
  • PIER. 2011. Bambusa spp. US Forest Service, Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Online resource accessed 28 November 2011 at http://www.hear.org/pier/species/bambusa_spp.htm.
  • Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references. Version: 23rd April 2010. Accessed 28 November 2011 at http://delta-intkey.com/grass/www/bambusa.htm.
  • Waynesword. 2011. Bamboo: remarkable giant grasses. Retrieved 28 November 2011 from http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ecoph39.htm.
  • Wiltshire, Trea. 2004. Bamboo. Hong Kong: FormAsia Books. 183 p.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

Trees. Inflorescence comprising an untidy tuft or stellate cluster of 1-many pseudospikelets, sessile at a node, the primary subtending scale usually glume-like, sometimes spathaceous. Spikelets 2-many-flowered; glumes 1-3; lemmas subequal. Stamens 6. Stigmas usually 3.
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Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Arthrinium dematiaceous anamorph of Apiospora montagnei is saprobic on dead stem of Bambusa

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Arthrinium dematiaceous anamorph of Arthrinium phaeospermum is saprobic on dead leaf of Bambusa
Remarks: season: esp. 7-8

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Schizopora paradoxa is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Bambusa
Other: unusual host/prey

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Thin-walled tubular stems resist buckling: bamboo
 

The stems of many plants may resist buckling by including transverse bulkheads that prevent ovalization.

   
  "The condition of having one fixed end is of particular biological interest--it's the situation of long, slender plant stems such as those of dandelions, grass, bamboo, and others…As emphasized by Schulgasser and Witztum (1992), their anisotropy greatly increases the risk of buckling for plants that use thin-walled tubular construction. Mainly, the tubes, normally circular in cross section, go somewhat oval just prior to buckling, and that reduces the critical force. Preventing that ovalization may be one of the roles of the periodic transverse bulkheads so conspicuous in, for instance, bamboo." (Vogel 2003)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Steven Vogel. 2003. Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 580 p.
  • Schulgasser, K; Witztum, A. 1992. On the strength, stiffness, and stability of tubular plant stems and leaves. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 155: 497-515.
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Functional adaptation

Fiber gives toughness: bamboo and trees
 

Fibers of bamboo and trees provide toughness by their simple structure of fiber-reinforced composites

   
  "[I]t has been found that  these natural biomaterials [bamboos and trees] have very reasonable structures which gives  them many excellent properties, such as good carrying capacity, good  toughness, self-healing, and so on. Furthermore, these biomaterials have  very fine and special structures rather than complicated compositions...For example, trees and  bamboos are typical long, fiber-reinforced composites. Their fibers have  different sizes and arranged modes in structure so that they can  display the optimal behaviors under tensile, bending, compressing stress  and other applied load...So, the complicated and reasonable structure of natural biomaterials  can give us an important insight into making better structure materials  through biomimetic design." (Wang et al. 2000:9)

  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Wang, C.; Huang, Y.; Zan, Q.; Guo, H.; Cai, S. 2000. Biomimetic structure design—a possible approach to change the brittleness of ceramics in nature. Materials Science & Engineering C. 11(1): 9-12.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 119
Specimens with Sequences: 107
Specimens with Barcodes: 86
Species: 39
Species With Barcodes: 38
Public Records: 69
Public Species: 28
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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 1
Specimens with Sequences: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Public Records: 1
Public Species: 1
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Barcode data

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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Bambusa

Bambusa is a large genus of clumping bamboos.[3]

Most species of Bambusa are rather large, with numerous branches emerging from the nodes, and one or two much larger than the rest. The branches can be as long as 11 m (33 ft). They are native to Southeast Asia, China, the Himalayas, New Guinea, Melanesia, and the Northern Territory of Australia. They are also reportedly naturalized in other regions, e.g. Africa, Latin America, and various oceanic islands.[2][4][5][6]

Species[2]
  1. Bambusa affinis Munro - Laos, Myanmar
  2. Bambusa albolineata L.C.Chia - Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Zhejiang
  3. Bambusa alemtemshii H.B.Naithani - Nagaland
  4. Bambusa amplexicaulis W.T.Lin & Z.M.Wu - Guangdong
  5. Bambusa angustiaurita W.T.Lin - Guangdong
  6. Bambusa angustissima L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangdong
  7. Bambusa arnhemica F.Muell. - Northern Territory of Australia
  8. Bambusa assamica Barooah & Borthakur - Assam
  9. Bambusa aurinuda McClure - Guangxi, Vietnam
  10. Bambusa australis L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Vietnam
  11. Bambusa balcooa Roxb. - India, Nepal, Assam, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos; naturalized in South Africa and the islands of the Gulf of Guinea
  12. Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss - India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Assam, Indochina; naturalized in Seychelles, Central America, West Indies, Java, Malaysia, Maluku, Philippines
  13. Bambusa barpatharica Borthakur & Barooah - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam
  14. Bambusa basihirsuta McClure - Guangdong, Zhejiang
  15. Bambusa basihirsutoides N.H.Xia - Guangdong
  16. Bambusa basisolida W.T.Lin - Guangdong
  17. Bambusa beecheyana Munro - Taiwan, Myanmar, Vietnam, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan; naturalized in Colombia, Brazil
  18. Bambusa bicicatricata (W.T.Lin) L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Hainan
  19. Bambusa binghamii Gamble - Myanmar
  20. Bambusa boniopsis McClure - Hainan
  21. Bambusa brevispicula Holttum - New Guinea
  22. Bambusa brunneoaciculia G.A.Fu - Hainan
  23. Bambusa burmanica Gamble - Bangladesh, Yunnan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Peninsular Malaysia
  24. Bambusa cacharensis R.B.Majumdar - Bangladesh, Assam
  25. Bambusa cerosissima McClure - Guangdong. Guangxi, Vietnam
  26. Bambusa chungii McClure - Vietnam, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Yunnan
  27. Bambusa chunii L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Laos; cultivated in Hong Kong
  28. Bambusa clavata Stapleton - Bhutan
  29. Bambusa comillensis Alam - Bangladesh
  30. Bambusa concava W.T.Lin - Hainan
  31. Bambusa contracta L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangdong, Guangxi
  32. Bambusa copelandii Gamble - Myanmar
  33. Bambusa corniculata L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangxi
  34. Bambusa cornigera McClure - Guangxi
  35. Bambusa crispiaurita W.T.Lin & Z.M.Wu - Guangdong
  36. Bambusa dampaeana H.B.Naithani, Garbyal & N.S.Bisht - Mizoram
  37. Bambusa diaoluoshanensis L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Hainan
  38. Bambusa dissimulator McClure - Guangdong, Vietnam; naturalized in Brazil, Puerto Rico
  39. Bambusa distegia (Keng & Keng f.) L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Sichuan
  40. Bambusa dolichoclada Hayata - Fujian, Taiwan; naturalized in Ryukyu Islands
  41. Bambusa duriuscula W.T.Lin - Hainan
  42. Bambusa emeiensis L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan
  43. Bambusa eutuldoides McClure - Guangdong, Guangxi; naturalized in Colombia
  44. Bambusa farinacea K.M.Wong - Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia
  45. Bambusa fimbriligulata McClure - Myanmar
  46. Bambusa flexuosa Munro - Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Guangdong, Hainan
  47. Bambusa fruticosa Holttum - Papua New Guinea
  48. Bambusa funghomii McClure - Henan, Guangdong, Guangxi
  49. Bambusa garuchokua Barooah & Borthakur - Assam
  50. Bambusa gibba McClure - Vietnam, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Jiangxi; naturalized in Ecuador
  51. Bambusa gibboides W.T.Lin - Guangdong
  52. Bambusa glabrovagina G.A.Fu - Hainan
  53. Bambusa glaucophylla Widjaja - Java
  54. Bambusa grandis (Q.H.Dai & X.L.Tao) Ohrnb. - Guangxi
  55. Bambusa griffithiana Munro - Manipur, Myanmar
  56. Bambusa guangxiensis L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangxi
  57. Bambusa hainanensis L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Hainan
  58. Bambusa heterostachya (Munro) Holttum - Peninsular Malaysia
  59. Bambusa horsfieldii Munro - Java, Philippines
  60. Bambusa indigena L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangdong
  61. Bambusa insularis L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Hainan
  62. Bambusa intermedia Hsueh f. & T.P.Yi - Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan
  63. Bambusa jacobsii Widjaja - Java
  64. Bambusa jaintiana R.B.Majumdar - Nepal, Bhutan, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Myanmar
  65. Bambusa khasiana Munro - Assam
  66. Bambusa kingiana Gamble - Myanmar
  67. Bambusa lako Widjaja - Timor
  68. Bambusa lapidea McClure - Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan
  69. Bambusa latideltata W.T.Lin - Guangdong
  70. Bambusa laxa K.M.Wong - Peninsular Malaysia
  71. Bambusa lenta L.C.Chia - Fujian
  72. Bambusa longipalea W.T.Lin - Guangdong
  73. Bambusa longispiculata Gamble - Bangladesh, Myanmar; naturalized in Vietnam, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Colombia, Ecuador, Puerto Rico
  74. Bambusa macrolemma Holttum - New Britain
  75. Bambusa macrotis L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangdong
  76. Bambusa maculata Widjaja - Maluku
  77. Bambusa majumdarii P.Kumari & P.Singh - Meghalaya
  78. Bambusa malingensis McClure - Hainan; naturalized in Cuba
  79. Bambusa manipureana H.B.Naithani & N.S.Bisht - Manipur
  80. Bambusa marginata Munro - Myanmar
  81. Bambusa merrillii Gamble - Luzon
  82. Bambusa microcephala (Pilg.) Holttum - New Guinea
  83. Bambusa mizorameana H.B.Naithani - Mizoram
  84. Bambusa mohanramii P.Kumari & P.Singh - Meghalaya
  85. Bambusa mollis L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangxi
  86. Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch. ex Schult.f. - Nepal, Bhutan, Assam, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan; naturalized in Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, Iraq, Bismarck Archipelago, New Zealand, Chiapas, Central America, West Indies, Colombia, Ecuador, eastern Brazil, Florida, Georgia, Alabama
  87. Bambusa mutabilis McClure - Hainan; naturalized in Puerto Rico
  88. Bambusa nagalandiana H.B.Naithani - Nagaland
  89. Bambusa nairiana P.Kumari & P.Singh - Meghalaya
  90. Bambusa nepalensis Stapleton - Nepal
  91. Bambusa nutans Wall. ex Munro - Himalayas of eastern + northern India; Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
  92. Bambusa odashimae Hatus. ex D.Z.Li & Stapleton - Taiwan; naturalized in Ryukyu Islands
  93. Bambusa oldhamii Munro - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Zhejiang; naturalized in Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, New Zealand, Chiapas, Honduras, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
  94. Bambusa oliveriana Gamble - Myanmar
  95. Bambusa ooh Widjaja & Astuti - Bali
  96. Bambusa pachinensis Hayata - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Zhejiang
  97. Bambusa pallida Munro - Sikkim, Yunnan, Assam, Bangladesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Indochina
  98. Bambusa papillata (Q.H.Dai) K.M.Lan - Guangxi
  99. Bambusa papillatoides Q.H.Dai & D.Y.Huang - Guangxi
  100. Bambusa pervariabilis McClure - Guangdong, Guangxi; naturalized in Puerto Rico
  101. Bambusa pierreana E.G.Camus - Thailand, Vietnam
  102. Bambusa piscatorum McClure - Hainan
  103. Bambusa polymorpha Munro - Bangladesh, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand; naturalized in Assam, Sri Lanka, Java, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Ecuador
  104. Bambusa procera A.Chev. & A.Camus - Vietnam, Cambodia
  105. Bambusa prominens H.L.Fung & C.Y.Sia - Sichuan
  106. Bambusa ramispinosa L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangxi
  107. Bambusa rangaensis Borthakur & Barooah - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam
  108. Bambusa rectocuneata (W.T.Lin) N.H.Xia, R.S.Lin & R.H.Wang - Guangdong
  109. Bambusa remotiflora (Kuntze) L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangdong, Guangxi, Vietnam
  110. Bambusa riauensis Widjaja - Sumatra
  111. Bambusa rigida Keng & Keng f. - Sichuan
  112. Bambusa riparia Holttum - Papua New Guinea
  113. Bambusa rongchengensis (T.P.Yi & C.Y.Sia) D.Z.Li - Sichuan
  114. Bambusa rugata (W.T.Lin) Ohrnb. - Guangdong
  115. Bambusa rutila McClure - Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan
  116. Bambusa salarkhanii Alam - Nepal, Bangladesh
  117. Bambusa schizostachyoides Kurz ex Gamble - Myanmar, Vietnam, Andaman Islands
  118. Bambusa semitecta W.T.Lin & Z.M.Wu - Guangdong
  119. Bambusa sesquiflora (McClure) L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Thailand, Vietnam
  120. Bambusa sinospinosa McClure - Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan
  121. Bambusa solida Munro ex Becc. - Borneo
  122. Bambusa solomonensis Holttum - Solomon Islands
  123. Bambusa spinosa Roxb. - Indonesia, Philippines; naturalized in southern China, Ryukyu Islands, Indochina, Malaysia, Puerto Rico
  124. Bambusa stenoaurita (W.T.Lin) T.H.Wen - Guangdong
  125. Bambusa subaequalis H.L.Fung & C.Y.Sia - Sichuan
  126. Bambusa subtruncata L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangdong
  127. Bambusa surrecta (Q.H.Dai) Q.H.Dai - Guangxi
  128. Bambusa tabacaria (Lour.) Steud. - Vietnam, Java, Maluku
  129. Bambusa teres Munro - Tibet, Guangdong, Guangxi, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Assam, Myanmar
  130. Bambusa textilis McClure - Anhui, Guangdong, Guangxi, Vietnam; naturalized in Colombia, Puerto Rico
  131. Bambusa transvenula (W.T.Lin & Z.J.Feng) N.H.Xia - Guangdong
  132. Bambusa truncata B.M.Yang - Hunan
  133. Bambusa tsangii McClure - Vietnam
  134. Bambusa tulda Roxb - Tibet, Yunnan, Himalayas, Nepal, Bhutan, Assam, India, Bangladesh, northern Indochina; naturalized in Iraq, Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia, Puerto Rico
  135. Bambusa tuldoides Munro - Guangdong, Guangxi, Indochina; naturalized in Ryukyu Islands, Bangladesh, Chiapas, El Salvador, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Trinidad, Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia
  136. Bambusa utilis W.C.Lin - Taiwan
  137. Bambusa valida (Q.H.Dai) W.T.Lin - Guangxi
  138. Bambusa variostriata (W.T.Lin) L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangdong
  139. Bambusa ventricosa McClure - Guangdong, Vietnam; naturalized in Brazil, Malaysia
  140. Bambusa villosula Kurz - Myanmar
  141. Bambusa vinhphuensis T.Q.Nguyen - Vietnam
  142. Bambusa viridis Widjaja - western New Guinea
  143. Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. - Yunnan, Indochina; naturalized in parts of Africa, Madagascar, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Indian Subcontinent, Latin America, West Indies, United States (Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Florida, Arizona, South Carolina, Maryland, New Jersey)
  144. Bambusa wenchouensis (T.H.Wen) Keng f. ex Q.F.Zheng, Y.M.Lin - Fujian, Zhejiang
  145. Bambusa xiashanensis L.C.Chia & H.L.Fung - Guangdong
  146. Bambusa xueana Ohrnb. - Yunnan

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genus: Bambusa Schreb.". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Retrieved 24 January 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ "Bambusa". The Plant List, RBG Kew. Retrieved 24 January 2012. 
  4. ^ Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 8, 9, 簕竹属 le zhu shu, Bambusa Schreber, Gen. Pl. 236. 1789.
  5. ^ Clayton, W. D. & S. A. Renvoize. 1986. Genera graminum. Grasses of the world. Kew Bulletin : Additional Series 13: 1–389.
  6. ^ G.P. Chapman. 1997. Bamboos. Academic Press, New York.
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Bambusa multiplex var yellow

the board put under the specimen at Kerala Forest Research Institute, Veluppadam, Kerala, India
A specimen at Kerala Forest Research Institute, Veluppadam, Kerala, India

[1]

References[edit]

References[edit]


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Bambusa pellida

Bambusa pellida is a type of bamboo tree.

photo taken from the bamboo garden of KFRI (kerala forest research institute at Palappilli, thrissur dist, kerala, India.
  1. ^ "Bambusa pallida (L.) Voss". The Plant List, RBG Kew. Retrieved 24 January 2012. 
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