Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annuals. Inflorescence an open nodding panicle. Spikelets large (10 - 40 mm), 2-several-flowered, laterally flattened or terete, disarticulating below each floret or only above the glumes. Lower 1-3 florets bisexual; upper male, sterile or reduced. Glumes herbaceous to membranous, persistent, dorsally rounded; apex acute or acuminate. Lemmas usually shorter than the glumes, 5-9-nerved, awned; apex acute to acuminate, 2-dentate; awn dorsal.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / feeds on
Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta avenae feeds on Avena

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta avenae var. avenae causes spots on leaf of seedling of Avena
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed pycnidium of Actinothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta avenae var. confusa causes spots on leaf of Avena

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Actinothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta leptospora causes spots on leaf of Avena

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Cephus pygmeus feeds within stem of Avena

Foodplant / parasite
Sphacelia anamorph of Claviceps purpurea parasitises inflorescence of Avena
Remarks: season: 7

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Dictyosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Dictyosporium elegans is saprobic on stubble of Avena

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Dolerus haematodes grazes on leaf of Avena

Foodplant / parasite
colony of Drechslera dematiaceous anamorph of Drechslera avenacea parasitises live Avena

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Drechslera dematiaceous anamorph of Drechslera biseptata is saprobic on dead inflorescence of Avena

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Drechslera dematiaceous anamorph of Drechslera dematioidea is saprobic on dead leaf of Avena

Foodplant / saprobe
Entophlyctis aurea is saprobic on submerged leaf of Avena

Plant / resting place / on
male of Frankliniella tenuicornis may be found on live Avena
Remarks: season: 7-9

Foodplant / pathogen
immersed, mycelial matted perithecium of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae infects and damages dead stem base of Avena
Remarks: season: 3-10

Foodplant / pathogen
Fusarium anamorph of Gibberella zeae infects and damages stem base of Avena

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Limothrips denticornis feeds on live floret of Avena
Remarks: season: 7-8
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Fusarium anamorph of Monographella nivalis infects and damages leaf sheath (usually close to stem base) of Avena

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Mycosphaerella allicina is saprobic on Avena

Foodplant / spot causer
crowded, arranged in rows or scattered, immersed, minute, fuscous pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Mycosphaerella graminicola causes spots on live leaf of Avena
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Hendersonia coelomycetous anamorph of Phaeosphaeria vagans is saprobic on dead stem of Avena

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Phalacrus corruscus feeds on Avena

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pseudonapomyza atra feeds within leaf of Avena
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed, crowded or in rows pycnidium of Pseudoseptoria coelomycetous anamorph of Pseudoseptoria donacis causes spots on sheath of Avena
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Drechslera dematiaceous anamorph of Pyrenophora chaetomioides causes spots on live leaf of Avena

Foodplant / sap sucker
Rhopalosiphum insertum sucks sap of live Avena
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed stromatic of Rhynchosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Rhynchosporium secalis causes spots on live sheath of Avena

Foodplant / spot causer
scattered, immersed, punctiform, blackish pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria affinis causes spots on leaf of Avena
Remarks: season: 9

Foodplant / pathogen
immersed stroma of Pseudocercosporella dematiaceous anamorph of Tapesia yallundae infects and damages live stem of Avena

Foodplant / pathogen
embedded sorus of Ustilago hordei infects and damages live spikelet of Avena

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Zabrus tenebrioides feeds on Avena

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:190
Specimens with Sequences:205
Specimens with Barcodes:167
Species:31
Species With Barcodes:31
Public Records:128
Public Species:27
Public BINs:0
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Avena

For the former town in California, see Avena, California. For the Colombian oatmeal beverage, see Avena (beverage). For the Italian wine grape, see Avenà.

Avena is a genus of Eurasian and African plants[5] in the grass family. Collectively known as the oats, they include some species which have been cultivated for thousands of years as a food source for humans and livestock.[6] They are widespread throughout Europe, Asia and northwest Africa. Several species have become naturalized in many parts of the world, and are regarded as invasive weeds where they compete with crop production. All oats have edible seeds, though they are small and hard to harvest in most species.[7][8]

  • See Oat for a more detailed discussion of the oat as a food source.

Ecology[edit]

Avena species, including cultivated oats, are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Rustic Shoulder-knot and Setaceous Hebrew Character.

For diseases of oats, see List of oat diseases.

Species[edit]

Cultivated oats[4][9]

One species is of major commercial importance as a cereal grain. Four other species are grown as crops of minor or regional importance.

  1. Avena sativa – the common oat, a cereal crop of global importance and the species commonly referred to as "oats"
  2. Avena abyssinica – the Ethiopian oat, native to Ethiopia, Eritrea, + Djibouti; naturalized in Yemen + Saudi Arabia
  3. Avena byzantina, a minor crop in Greece and Middle East; introduced in Spain, Algeria, India, New Zealand, South America, etc.
  4. Avena nuda – the naked oat or hulless oat, which plays much the same role in Europe as does A. abyssinica in Ethiopia. It is sometimes included in A. sativa and was widely grown in Europe before the latter replaced it. As its nutrient content is somewhat better than that of the common oat, A. nuda has increased in significance in recent years, especially in organic farming.
  5. Avena strigosa – the lopsided oat, bristle oat, or black oat,[10] grown for fodder in parts of Western Europe and Brazil
Wild oats[4][11][12][13][14]

Several species of Avena occur in the wild, sometimes as weeds in agricultural fields. They are known as wild oats or oat-grasses. Those growing alongside cultivated oats in agricultural fields are considered nuisance weeds, as, being grasses like the crop, they are difficult to remove chemically; any standard herbicide that would kill them would also damage the crop. A specific herbicide must be used. The costs of this herbicide and the length of time it must be used to reduce the weed is significant, with seeds able to lie dormant for up to 10 years.

  1. Avena aemulans - European Russia
  2. Avena barbata – slender wild oat - from Portugal + Morocco to Tajikstan
  3. Avena brevis – short oat - central + southern Europe
  4. Avena chinensis - Germany, Austria; introduced in China, Belarus
  5. Avena clauda - Balkans, Middle East, Central Asia
  6. Avena eriantha - North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, Caucasus
  7. Avena fatua – common wild oat - Europe, Asia, North Africa; naturalized in Australia, the Americas, various islands
  8. Avena longiglumis - North Africa, Israel, Spain, Portugal, Sardinia
  9. Avena maroccana – Moroccan oat - Morocco
  10. Avena murphyi - Morocco, Spain
  11. Avena prostrata - Morocco, Spain
  12. Avena saxatilis - Sicily and small nearby islands
  13. Avena sterilis – winter wild oat - Mediterranean, East Africa; temperate Asia; introduced in northern Europe, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas
  14. Avena strigosa - Spain, France, Portugal; introduced in other parts of Europe as well as in scattered locations in Australia, New Zealand, the Americas
  15. Avena vaviloviana - Eritrea, Ethiopia
  16. Avena ventricosa - North Africa, Middle East
  17. Avena volgensis - European Russia
Species formerly included[4]

Hundreds of taxa have been included in Avena at one time in the past but are now considered better suited to other genera: Agrostis Aira Ampelodesmos Anisopogon Arrhenatherum Avenula Bromus Calamagrostis Capeochloa Centropodia Corynephorus Danthonia Danthoniastrum Deschampsia Festuca Gaudinia Helictochloa Helictotrichon Hierochloe Lachnagrostis Lolium Parapholis Pentameris Periballia Peyritschia Rytidosperma Schizachne Sphenopholis Stipa Stipagrostis Tenaxia Tricholemma Triraphis Trisetaria Trisetum Tristachya Ventenata

Sociolinguistics[edit]

"Sowing wild oats" is a phrase used since at least the 16th century; it appears in a 1542 tract by Thomas Beccon, a Protestant clergyman from Norfolk. Apparently, a similar expression was used in Roman Republican times, possibly by Plautus. The origin of the expression is the fact that wild oats, notably A. fatua, are a major weed in oat farming. Among European cereal grains, oats are hardest to tell apart from their weedy relatives, which look almost alike but yield little grain. The life cycle of A. fatua is nearly synchronous with that of common oat, and their relationship is an example of Vavilovian mimicry. Historically, growers could control the weed only by checking the crop plants one by one and hand-weeding. Consequently, "sowing wild oats" became a phrase to describe unprofitable activities. Given the reputation of oat grain to have invigorating properties and the obvious connection between plant seeds and human "seed", it is not surprising that the meaning of the phrase became a reference to the destructive sexual liaisons of an unmarried young male, which result in unwanted children born out of wedlock.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tropicos, search for Avena
  2. ^ Thellung, Albert. 1911. Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich 56: 311-337 in German
  3. ^ lectotype designated by Nash in N. L. Britton et A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N.U.S. ed. 2. 1: 218 (1913)
  4. ^ a b c d Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. ^ List of Avena species on GRIN
  6. ^ Watson, L. and M. J. Dallwitz. (2008). "Avena". The Grass Genera of the World. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  7. ^ Cabi, E. & M. Doğan. 2012. Poaceae. 690–756. In A. Güner, S. Aslan, T. Ekim, M. Vural & M. T. Babaç (eds.) Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi. Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını, Istanbul.
  8. ^ Röser, M., E. Döring, G. Winterfeld & J. Schneider. 2009. Generic realignments in the grass tribe Aveneae (Poaceae). Schlechtendalia 19: 27–38
  9. ^ Bailey, L.H. & E.Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus Third i–xiv, 1–1290. MacMillan, New York
  10. ^ John Wishart. "Orkney College". Agronomy.uhi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  11. ^ Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 323 燕麦属 yan mai shu Avena Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 79. 1753.
  12. ^ Flora of Pakistan, Avena Linn.
  13. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Avena includes photos and distribution maps for several species
  14. ^ Pohl, R. W. 1994. 38. Avena L. 6: 232. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Flora Mesoamericana. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F..
  15. ^ Quinion (1999)
  • Quinion, Michael (1999): World Wide Words: Sow one's wild oats. Web posted 1999-NOV-27. Retrieved 2007-OCT-17.
  • Zohary, Daniel & Hopf, Maria (2000): Domestication of plants in the Old World (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.
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