Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, immersed, clypeate perithecium of Anthostomella lugubris is saprobic on bleached, dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 6-9

Foodplant / saprobe
usually in small groups perithecium of Anthostomella phaeosticta is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Arthrinium dematiaceous anamorph of Apiospora montagnei is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Arthrinium dematiaceous anamorph of Arthrinium phaeospermum is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: esp. 7-8
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Actinothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta leptospora causes spots on leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Belonium psammicola is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 6-8

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Belonopsis graminea is saprobic on dead stem of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, sometimes grouped pseudothecium of Chitonospora ammophila is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 7-9

Foodplant / parasite
Sphacelia anamorph of Claviceps purpurea parasitises inflorescence of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 7

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Coniothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Coniothyrium psammae is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 8-1

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Didymella scotica is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 7

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Epicoccum dematiaceous anamorph of Epicoccum nigrum is saprobic on dead, fungus infected stem of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Hymenoscyphus robustior is saprobic on dead stem of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 6-7
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial stroma of Hypocrea spinulosa is saprobic on decaying stem of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 8-11

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, becoming erumpent apothecium of Hysterostegiella valvata is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Lachnum carneolum var. longisporum is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: (2-)6-8(-10)

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Lachnum palearum var. palearum is saprobic on dead stem of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 3-8

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Lichenopeltella ammophilae is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 5-11

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Lichenopeltella nigroannulata is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
conidial anamorph of Lophodermium arundinaceum is saprobic on dead sheath of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 11-3+

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Lophodermium gramineum is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Periconia dematiaceous anamorph of Massarina igniaria is saprobic on dry, scorched or burnt Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 8-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Tetraploa dematiaceous anamorph of Massarina tetraploa is saprobic on Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
pseudothecium of Massariosphaeria rubelloides is saprobic on dead stem of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 4-8

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Microthyrium gramineum is saprobic on dead, very grey, lying on sand between clumps leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Microthyrium ilicinum is saprobic on dead, very grey, lying on sand between clumps leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia poaeoides is saprobic on dead culm of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 11-2

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, linearly arranged pseudothecium of Mycosphaerella lineolata is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
extensive, velvety colony of Cladosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Mycosphaerella tulasnei is saprobic on dead, rain-soaked leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 1-12

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, initially immersed pseudothecium of Phaeosphaeria luctuosa is saprobic on dead stem of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: spring, summer
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Phaeosphaeria marram is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 5-6

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, initially immersed pycnidium of Septoria anamorph of Phaeosphaeria nodorum is saprobic on dead stem (esp node) of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: spring, summer

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Hendersonia coelomycetous anamorph of Phaeosphaeria vagans is saprobic on dead stem of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma ammophilae is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 1-4

Foodplant / saprobe
becoming erumpent perithecium of Phomatospora arenaria is saprobic on dead rhizome of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, clypeate pseudothecium of Plejobolus arenarius is saprobic on dead basal part of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Psammina coelomycetous anamorph of Psammina bommeriae is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: (4-)10-11

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Psilachnum eburneum is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 4-9

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous telium of Puccinia elymi parasitises live leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed apothecium of Pyrenopeziza arenivaga is saprobic on dead stem of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, usually solitary apothecium of Rutstroemia maritima is saprobic on dead leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Torula dematiaceous anamorph of Torula herbarum is saprobic on dead stem of Ammophila (Bot.)

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial pseudothecium of Tubeufia parvula is saprobic on dead inflorescence of Ammophila (Bot.)
Remarks: season: 5-6

Foodplant / spot causer
long, linear, erumpent sorus of Ustilago hypodytes causes spots on live, blistered leaf of Ammophila (Bot.)
Other: minor host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 25
Specimens with Sequences: 31
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species: 4
Species With Barcodes: 3
Public Records: 10
Public Species: 3
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Ammophila (plant)

Ammophila (synonymous with Psamma P. Beauv.) is a genus consisting of two or three very similar species of grasses; common names for these grasses include Marram Grass, Bent Grass, and Beachgrass.[2] These grasses are found almost exclusively on the first line of coastal sand dunes; their extensive systems of creeping underground stems or rhizomes allow them to thrive under conditions of shifting sands and high winds, and to help stabilize and prevent coastal erosion. Ammophila species are native to the coasts of the North Atlantic Ocean where they are usually the dominant species on sand dunes. Their native range includes few inland regions, with the Great Lakes of North America being the main exception.[3] The genus name "Ammophila" originates from the Greek words of Ammos (ἄμμος), meaning sand, and Phillia (ϕιλος), meaning lover.

The Ammophila grasses are widely known as examples of xerophytes, which are plants that can withstand arid conditions such as deserts or sandy beaches. Its xerophytic adaptations (mentioned below) allow it to thrive under conditions most plants could not survive. Despite their occurrence on seacoasts, Ammophila grasses are not particularly tolerant of saline soils; they can tolerate a salinity of about 15 g/l (1.5%), which makes them "moderate halophytes".[4]

Ammophila builds coastal sand dunes and thus stabilizes the sand. For this reason, the plants have been introduced far from their native range. Alfred Wiedemann writes that, starting in the early 19th century, Ammophila arenaria "has been introduced into virtually every British colonial settlement within its latitudinal tolerance range, including southeast and southwest Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the Falkland Islands, and Norfolk Island. It has been planted widely in Japan and has been reported from Argentina and Chile."[5] Ammophila species were introduced in the late 19th century on the Pacific coast of North America as well, and massive, intentional plantings were continued at least through 1960. In essentially all of the locations where they have been introduced, Ammophila plants are now listed as invasive, and costly efforts are underway to eradicate them.

Species[edit]

Only two species seem incontrovertible: A. arenaria and A. breviligulata. Two other species have been proposed, and are discussed below.

Ecology[edit]

In Europe, Ammophila arenaria has a coastal distribution, and is the dominant species on sand dunes where it is responsible for stabilising and building the foredune by capturing blown sand and binding it together with the warp and weft of its tough, fibrous rhizome system. Marram grass is strongly associated with two coastal plant community types in the British National Vegetation Classification. In community SD6 (Mobile dune) Ammophila is the dominant species. In the semi-fixed dunes (community SD7), where the quantity of blown sand is declining Ammophila becomes less competitive, and other species, notably Festuca rubra (Red Fescue) become prominent.

Uses[edit]

The ability of marram grass to grow on and bind sand makes it a useful plant in the stabilization of coastal dunes and artificial defences on sandy coasts. The usefulness was recognized in the late 18th century.[9][10] On the North Sea coast of Jutland, Denmark, marram grass was traditionally much used for fuel, thatch, cattle fodder (after frost) etc. The use led to sand drift and loss of arable land. Hence, legislation promoting dune stabilization came into force in 1779 and 1792, successively leading to system of state-supported dune planters overlooked by dune bailifs. Marram grass was - and still is - propagated by root and shoot cuttings dug up locally and planted into the naked sand in periods of relatively calm and moist weather.

Newborough women once used marram grass in the manufacture of mats, haystack covers and brushes for whitewashing.

Marram grass has been widely used for thatch in many areas of the British isles close to the sea. The harvesting of marram grass for thatch was so widespread during the 17th century that it had the effect of destabilizing dunes, resulting in the burial of many villages, estates and farms. In 1695 the practice was banned by an Act of the Scottish Parliament:[11]

Considering that many lands, meadowes and pasturages lying on sea coasts have been ruined and overspread in many places in this kingdom by sand driven from adjacent sand hills .... His Majesty does strictly prohibit and discharge the pulling of bent, broom or juniper off the sand hills for hereafter.

Adaptations[edit]

Like other Xerophytes, Marram Grass is well adapted to its surroundings in order to thrive in an otherwise harsh environment. The natural loss of water through transpiration is not desirable in a very dry landscape, and Marram grass has developed particular adaptations to help it deal with this. Sandy conditions drain water quickly, and very windy conditions will further increase rates of transpiration.

Marram Grass has a rolled leaf, which differs from many Cacti that have spines instead. This creates a localized environment of water vapour potential within the leaf, and helps to prevent losses of this precious water. The stomata sit in small pits within the curls of the structure, which make them less likely to open and to lose water. The folded leaves have hairs on the inside to slow or stop air movement, much like many other Xerophytes (though these are typically found on the outside of the plant, but in Marram grass they are also within the leaf as this has now become a structure with more volume). This slowing of air movement once again reduces the amount of water vapour being lost. A waxy Plant cuticle on the leaf surface also prevents evaporation from the leaf surface.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Species in GRIN for genus". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  2. ^ "Ammophila". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 19 September 2008. 
  3. ^ Preston, C. D.; Pearman, D. A.; Dines, T. D. (2002). New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-851067-3. 
  4. ^ "Comprehensive Report Species - Ammophila arenaria". NatureServe. Retrieved 2008-09-28. 
  5. ^ Wiedemann, Alfred (1998-02-12). "Ammophila arenaria on the northwest coast of North America". Botanical Electronic News - BEN #183. Archived from the original on 27 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  6. ^ "Ammophila champlainensis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 6 September 2008. 
  7. ^ The identification of Champlain beachgrass as a species that is distinct from A. breviligulata is still under investigation, and some authors consider Champlain beachgrass to be a subspecies A. breviligulata ssp. champlainensis (Seymour) P.J. Walker, C.A. Paris & Barrington ex Barkworth. Recent work on morphological differences between varying populations assigned to A. breviligulata and to A. champlainensis do not support the assignment of a distinct species for the latter specimens, despite significant differences. See Delisle-Oldham, M. B.; Oldham, M. J.; Catling, P. M. (2008). "Taxonomic Recognition of Ammophila champlainensis and Morphological Variation in Northeastern North American Ammophila (Poaceae)". Rhodora 110 (942): 129–156. doi:10.3119/07-07.1. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 
  8. ^ "Champlain Beachgrass Guide". New York Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  9. ^ Viborg, E. (1788) Efterretning om Sandvexterne og deres Anvendelse til at dæmpe Sandflugten paa Vesterkanten af Jylland. København. Full text (in Danish)(Subsequent German translation: Beschreibung der Sandgewächse und ihrer Anwendung zur Hemmung des Flugsandes auf der Küste von Jütland etc. Viborg, Erich Aus dem Dänischen von J. Petersen. Kopenhagen, 1789)
  10. ^ Andresen, C. C. 1861. Om Klitformationen og Klittens Behandling og Bestyrelse. - P.G. Philipsens Forlag. Full text (in Danish)
  11. ^ Gimingham, C. H. (1964). "Maritime and sub-maritime communities". In Burnett, J. H. The Vegetation of Scotland. Edinburgh and London: Oliver & Boyd. pp. 67–142. 
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