Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) According to the North American Bumblebee website (www.bumblebee.org), this species ranges from Maine to Florida west to Illinois and Mississippi, including Ontario. Colla and Packer (2008) report it to be increasing in abundance in southern Ontario.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Neotype for Bombus bimaculatus Cresson, 1863
Catalog Number: USNM
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology
Sex/Stage: Male;
Preparation: Pinned
Locality: Mass., Massachusetts, United States
  • Neotype: 1863. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of America. 2: 92.
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Ecology

Associations

Flowering Plants Visited by Bombus bimaculatus in Illinois

Bombus bimaculatus Cresson: Apidae (Bombini), Hymenoptera
(observations are from Robertson, Reed, Petersen, Evans, Williams, Stephenson, Haddock & Chaplin, the Hilton Pond Center [HPC], Clinebell & Bernhardt, Clinebell, Larson & Barrett, Motten, Macior, and Standley et al., Willson & Bertin, Reader, and Graenicher)

Asclepiadaceae: Asclepias verticillata [plup sn] (WB); Asteraceae: Aster dumosus (Pt), Aster laevis (Pt), Coreopsis tripteris (Pt), Echinacea pallida (Cl), Helianthus annuus sn (Rb), Liatris pycnostachya (Cl), Liatris aspera (Re, Cl), Oligoneuron rigidum (Ev, Pt), Rudbeckia hirta (Pt), Silphium laciniatum (Pt), Silphium terebinthinaceum (Pt), Vernonia fasciculata (Re); Berberidaceae: Caulophyllum thalictroides sn (Rb), Podophyllum peltatum cp/exp (Mtt); Bignoniaceae: Catalpa speciosa sn cp (St); Boraginaceae: Mertensia virginica sn (Rb), Onosmodium molle (Wm); Brassicaceae: Dentaria laciniata sn (Rb); Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera tartarica sn (Gr), Triosteum perfoliatum sn (Rb); Ericaceae: Chamaedaphne calyculata fq (Rd), Vaccinium macrocarpon fq (Rd); Fabaceae: Amorpha canescens (Pt, Re), Baptisia leucantha (Pt), Baptisia leucophaea (HC), Dalea candida (Pt), Dalea purpurea (Re), Melilotus alba (Re), Melilotus officinalis (Re), Trifolium pratense sn (Rb, Re), Trifolium repens sn cp (Rb); Fumariaceae: Dicentra cucullaria sn cp fq (Rb, Mc); Geraniaceae: Geranium maculatum sn (Rb); Grossulariaceae: Ribes missouriense sn (Rb); Hydrophyllaceae: Hydrophyllum appendiculatum sn cp fq (Rb), Hydrophyllum virginianum sn fq (Rb); Iridaceae: Iris cristata (Mtt); Lamiaceae: Agastache foeniculum (Re), Blephilia hirsuta sn fq (Rb), Glechoma hederacea sn (Rb), Monarda bradburiana sn cp (Rb, Cl), Monarda fistulosa fq (Ev, Pt, Re, Cl), Nepeta cataria sn (Rb, Re), Pycnanthemum virginianum (Re), Stachys palustris (Re); Liliaceae: Uvularia grandiflora sn (Rb); Melastomataceae: Rhexia virginica cp fq (LBt); Papaveraceae: Sanguinaria canadensis cp (Mtt); Polemoniaceae: Phlox divaricata laphamii sn (Rb), Polemonium reptans sn (Rb); Pontederiaceae: Pontederia cordata (HPC); Primulaceae: Dodecatheon meadia cp fq (Mc); Pyrolaceae: Chimaphila maculata sn fq (Std), Chimaphila umbellata sn fq (Std); Ranunculaceae: Aquilegia canadensis sn cp (Mc), Delphinium tricorne sn fq (Mc), Hepatica americana cp (Mtt); Rosaceae: Amelanchier arborea sn (Rb); Rubiaceae: Cephalanthus occidentalis sn (Rb), Houstonia longifolia sn (Ev); Scrophulariaceae: Collinsia verna sn (Rb), Dasistoma macrophylla sn cp (Rb), Linaria vulgaris (Mc), Pedicularis canadensis sn cp fq (Mc), Penstemon digitalis sn fq (CB), Penstemon pallidus sn (CB), Veronicastrum virginicum (Cl); Solanaceae: Lycopersicon esculentum cp (Mc), Solanum dulcamara cp (Mc); Verbenaceae: Verbena hastata (Re), Verbena stricta sn (Rb)

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology of pollination- changes in recent decades

Seasonal temperature changes are an important factor in determining when plants come into bloom. If there are significant changes in annual temperature cycles over time, the blooming schedule can be altered worldwide. This begs an important question for plant pollination. Have the insects and other animals that service animal-pollinated plants altered their behavioral calendar in a similar way?

Using historical museum datasets and recent bee-monitoring data, North American researchers have examined this question in ten species of wild bees: Colletes inaequalis, Andrena crataegi, Andrena carlini, Andrena miserabilis, Osmia pumila, Osmia bucephala, Osmia atriventris, Osmia lignaria, Bombus impatiens, and Bombus bimaculatus. Over the past 130 years, there has been a significant shift toward emergence earlier in the Spring among these bees, which average approximately ten days earlier now than in the late 1800s. This trend was most pronounced in the last forty years.(Bartomeus et al, 2011)

Does this shift resemble a shift in the bloom schedule of the plants these bees visit? Changes in plant bloom times in response to climate change have been a subject of intensive study recently and data is available through several studies of native plants in North America, from herbarium records and monitoring programs (Miller-Rushing et al, 2006; Primack et al, 2004; Bradley et al, 1999; Cook et al, 2008). Among 106 native plants that are visited by these ten bee species, there is also a significant trend toward earlier flowering. This trend also became more pronounced in the last forty years.(Bartomeus et al, 2011)

Do these two shifts mean that bees will continue to be active during appropriate periods to take advantage of the bloom calendar? That is difficult to say. Emergence and bloom dates are quite variable, and all ten of these bee species visit many different species of plant, which have different bloom calendars. Another important research question: do schedule shifts also correspond for specialist plant-pollinator pairs, where a single species of animal visits a single species of plant?

  • Ignasi Bartomeusa, John S. Ascherb, David Wagnerc, Bryan N. Danforthd, Sheila Collae, Sarah Kornbluthb, and Rachael Winfreea. 2011. Climate-associated phenological advances in bee pollinators and bee-pollinated plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 108(51): 20645-20649
  • Miller-Rushing AJ, Primack RB, Primack D, Mukunda S. 2006. Photographs and herbarium specimens as tools to document phenological changes in response to global warming. Am J Bot 93:1667–1674.
  • Primack D, Imbres C, Primack RB, Miller-Rushing AJ, Del Tredici P. 2004. Herbarium specimens demonstrate earlier flowering times in response to warming in Boston. Am J Bot 91:1260–1264.
  • Bradley NL, Leopold AC, Ross J, Huffaker W. 1999. Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:9701–9704.
  • Cook BI, Cook ER, Huth PC, Thompson JE, Smiley D. 2008. A cross-taxa phenological dataset from Mohonk Lake, NY and its relationship to climate. Int J Climatol 1383: 1369–1383.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bombus bimaculatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 36
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: This species is still common in most of its range, and even increasing in some parts. It may be benefitting somewhat from the decline of certain other bumblebees such as B. affinis. Furthermore, as far as known, almost all other species in subgenus Pyrobombus remain common or are at least locally increasing.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.

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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable to increase of 25%

Comments: None of the current bumblebee references list this species as rare, declining, or of conservation concern. Colla and Packer (2008) and Williams et al. (2009) documented an increase in recent abundance in Ontario.

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%

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Threats

Degree of Threat: Low

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Management

Global Protection: Many to very many (13 to >40) occurrences appropriately protected and managed

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Wikipedia

Bombus bimaculatus

Bombus bimaculatus, or the twospotted bumblebee, is a common species of bumblebee in eastern North America. Its range extends from Ontario to Maine, south to Florida, and west to Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma and Mississippi.[2] The species' abdomen have two yellow spots.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bombus bimaculatus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  2. ^ "North American bumblebees". Bumblebees.org. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  3. ^ Brian Devore (July–August 2009). "Pollinators". Department of Natural Resources (Minnesota Conservation Volunteer): 12. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Subgenus: Pyrobombus

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