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Range DescriptionBycanistes cylindricus is restricted to the Upper Guinea forests of West Africa, where it is found in southern Guinea, Sierra Leone (including Loma Mountains, Western Area Peninsula Forest, Kangri Hills and Gola Forest [Okoni-Williams 2001]), Liberia, southern CÃ´te d'Ivoire (where it remains abundant in TaÃ¯ National Park and periphery habitat [Gartshore et al. 1995, H. Rainey in litt. 2007]), south-west Ghana (where recently observed only once during surveys of Draw River, Boi-Tano and Krokasua Foret Reserves [H. Rainey in litt. 2007]) and Togo (Kemp 1995; although this single record may be best considered unconfirmed [F. Dowsett-Lemaire in litt. 2012]). Its local status varies from uncommon to common (Nash 1990a, Gartshore et al. 1995, Gatter 1997). Recent observations suggest that the species is in rapid decline. It has been extirpated from Bia National Park (NP) in Ghana, where there have been no records since 1991 (Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett 2011). Several hunters interviewed by Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett (2009) in Ghana have said that B. cylindricus has become rare or difficult to find and the species may now be extinct at Fure Headwaters. It may also have disappeared from Opro River Forest Reserve (FR) (Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett 2010). Surveys at three forest reserves in Ghana (Draw River, Bio-Tano and Krokosua) in 2003 suggested that hornbills were in decline owing to habitat fragmentation and hunting (H. Rainey in litt. 2011). Observations of hornbill abundance in the forests of West Africa should be interpreted with regard to these species' movements, probably related to fruit abundance (e.g. H. Rainey in litt. 2011).