Crotalarieae is a tribe of flowering plants belonging to the bean family Fabaceae.


The Crotalarieae arose 31.2 ± 3.4 million years ago (in the Oligocene).[3][4] The members of this tribe consistently form a monophyletic clade in molecular phylogenetic analyses.[3][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] The tribe does not currently have a node-based definition and no morphological synapomorphies have been identified.[5][7] Several genera in the tribe produce quinolizidine alkaloids or macrocyclic pyrrolizidine alkaloids.[12][17][18]


Crotalarieae comprises the following genera:[19][20][21][22]


  1. ^ Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017. 
  2. ^ van Wyk B-E. (2013). "Kew entry for Crotalarieae". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, England. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Boatwright JS, Savolainen V, Van Wyk B-E, Schutte-Vlok AL, Forest F., Van der Bank M. (2008). "Systematic position of the anomalous genus Cadia and the phylogeny of the tribe Podalyrieae (Fabaceae)". Syst Bot 33 (1): 133–147. doi:10.1600/036364408783887500. 
  4. ^ Lavin M, Herendeen PS, Wojciechowski MF. (2005). "Evolutionary rates analysis of Leguminosae implicates a rapid diversification of lineages during the tertiary". Syst Biol 54 (4): 575–94. doi:10.1080/10635150590947131. PMID 16085576. 
  5. ^ a b Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  6. ^ Boatwright JS, le Roux MM, Wink M, Morozova T, van Wyk B-E. (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships of tribe Crotalarieae (Fabaceae) inferred from DNA sequences and morphology". Syst Bot 33 (4): 752–761. doi:10.1600/036364408786500271. JSTOR 40211942. 
  7. ^ a b Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  8. ^ Käss E, Wink M. (1996). "Molecular evolution of the Leguminosae: Phylogeny of the three subfamilies based on rbcL-sequences". Biochem Syst Ecol 24 (5): 365–378. doi:10.1016/0305-1978(96)00032-4. 
  9. ^ Käss E, Wink M. (1997). "Phylogenetic Relationships in the Papilionoideae (Family Leguminosae) Based on Nucleotide Sequences of cpDNA (rbcL) and ncDNA (ITS 1 and 2)". Mol Phylogenet Evol 8 (1): 65–88. doi:10.1006/mpev.1997.0410. PMID 9242596. 
  10. ^ Doyle JJ, Doyle JL, Ballenger JA, Dickson EE, Kajita T, Ohashi H. (1997). "A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene rbcL in the Leguminosae: taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of nodulation". Am J Bot 84 (4): 541–554. doi:10.2307/2446030. PMID 21708606. 
  11. ^ Doyle JJ, Chappill JA, Bailey CD, Kajita T. (2000). "Towards a comprehensive phylogeny of legumes: evidence from rbcL sequences and non-molecular data". In Herendeen PS, Bruneau A. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 9. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 1–20. ISBN 184246017X. 
  12. ^ a b Wink M, Mohamed GIA. (2003). "Evolution of chemical defense traits in the Leguminosae: mapping of distribution patterns of secondary metabolites on a molecular phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences of the rbcL gene". Biochem Syst Ecol 31 (8): 897–917. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(03)00085-1. 
  13. ^ Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M, Sanderson MJ. (2004). "A phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported subclades within the family". Am J Bot 91: 1846–1862. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846. PMID 21652332. 
  14. ^ Crisp MD, Gilmore S, Van Wyk B-E. (2000). "Molecular phylogeny of the genistoid tribes of papilionoid legumes". In Herendeen PS, Bruneau A. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 9. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 249–276. ISBN 184246017X. 
  15. ^ Kajita T, Ohashi H, Tateishi Y, Bailey CD, Doyle JJ. (2001). "rbcL and legume phylogeny, with particular reference to Phaseoleae, Millettieae and allies". Syst Bot 26 (3): 515–536. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.515. JSTOR 3093979. 
  16. ^ LPWG [Legume Phylogeny Working Group] (2013). "Legume phylogeny and classification in the 21st century: progress, prospects and lessons for other species-rich clades". Taxon 62 (2): 217–248. doi:10.12705/622.8. 
  17. ^ Van Wyk B-E. (2003). "The value of chemosystematics in clarifying relationships in the Genistoid tribes of papilionoid legumes". Biochem Syst Ecol 31 (8): 875–884. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(03)00083-8. 
  18. ^ Van Wyk B-E, Verdoorn GH. (1990). "Alkaloids as taxonomic characters in the tribe Crotalarieae (Fabaceae)". Biochem Syst Ecol 18 (7–8): 503–515. doi:10.1016/0305-1978(90)90122-V. 
  19. ^ Van Wyk B-E, Schutte AL. (1995). "Phylogenetic relationships of the tribes Podalyrieae, Liparieae and Crotalarieae". In Crisp MD, Doyle JJ. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 7: Phylogeny. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 283–308. ISBN 0947643796. 
  20. ^ Boatwright JS, Wink M, van Wyk B-E. (2011). "The generic concept of Lotononis (Crotalarieae, Fabaceae): Reinstatement of the genera Euchlora, Leobordea and Listia and the new genus Ezoloba". Taxon 60 (1): 161–77. 
  21. ^ Boatwright JS, Tilney PM, Van Wyk B-E. (2009). "The generic concept of Lebeckia (Crotalarieae, Fabaceae): reinstatement of the genus Calobota and the new genus Wiborgiella". S Afr J Bot 75 (3): 546–556. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2009.06.001. 
  22. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2003). "GRIN genus records of Crotalarieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
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