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Overview

Brief Summary

Those lovely large pine cones you find in the woods come from the maritime pine. The cones take 2 years to ripen. It takes another few years to open and release its seeds. A forest fire can force them to open more quickly. Besides the large cones, maritime pines are easy to recognize among the other pine species growing on the Wadden Islands by their long needles. Despite the name, maritime pines are not native to the Dutch coast.
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 30 m in native range; bark brown, deeply and irregularly longitudinally furrowed; branches sometimes pendulous, forming a pyramidal crown; branchlets pale reddish brown, producing 1-few nodes each year; winter buds brown, oblong, resinous. Needles 2 per bundle, bright green, usually twisted, 10-20 cm × ca. 2 mm, stiff, resin canals 6, median. Seed cones clustered, shortly pedunculate, conical- or ellipsoid-ovoid, symmetric or asymmetric, 9-18 cm. Apophyses brown, lustrous, conspicuously pyramidal; umbo slightly projecting and pungent.
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Physical Description

Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds not resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins finely serrulate (use magnification or slide your finger along the leaf), Leaf apex acute, Leaves > 5 cm long, Leaves > 10 cm long, Leaves not blue-green, Needle-like leaves somewhat rounded, Needle-like leaves twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 2, Needle-like leaf sheath persistent, Twigs glabrous, Twigs viscid, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones > 5 cm long, Seed cones bearing a scarlike umbo, Umbo with obvious prickle, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds brown, Seeds black, Seeds winged, Seeds unequally winged, Seed wings prominent, Seed wings equal to or broader than body.
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Stephen C. Meyers

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Pinus pinaster is mainly a pine of low-lying, coastal plains, usually on sandy soils of sea shore dunes and flats; however, in Morocco this species extends into the mountains to an elevation of ca. 2,000 m. Extensive planting, e.g. in sand dunes, for centuries has established this species in areas where it may not have occurred naturally but where it has subsequently often been naturalized. It forms tall pine forests and if with a more or less open canopy the understorey is of evergreen maquis shrubs. This species is frost sensitive, which is probably a reason why only in the far south of its range it ascends into the mountains. In Morocco it is a constituent of mixed coniferous forest with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii, Abies pinsapo var. marocana, Cedrus atlantica, and Taxus baccata. Common angiosperm trees in this forest type are Quercus ilex and at the higher altitudes Populus tremula.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Jiangsu, Jiangxi (Lu Shan) [native to N Africa, S Europe]
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / associate
fruitbody of Buchwaldoboletus lignicola is associated with rotting wood of Pinus pinaster
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous aecium of Coleosporium tussilaginis parasitises live needle of Pinus pinaster

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Dendrodochium anamorph of Dendrodochium pinastri is saprobic on branch of Pinus pinaster

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Gastrodes grossipes sucks sap of Pinus pinaster

Foodplant / pathogen
apothecium of Gremmeniella abietina infects and damages live twig of Pinus pinaster
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, often clustered apothecium of Lachnellula subtilissima is saprobic on fallen twig of Pinus pinaster
Remarks: season: 1-7

Foodplant / parasite
subcuticular or partially subepidermal pycnium of Melampsora populnea parasitises live needle of Pinus pinaster
Remarks: season: 5-6
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
toadstool of Mycena seynesii is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed cone of Pinus pinaster

Foodplant / secondary infection
erumpent pycnidium of Sclerophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Sydowia polyspora secondarily infects gall-midge infected leaf of Pinus pinaster

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus pinaster

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus pinaster

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D

Contributor/s

Justification
In many parts of its European range, Pinus pinaster is on the increase. This is partly due to naturalization from extensive plantations within its natural range. Within its range in North Africa, many subpopulations are in decline and P. pinaster subsp. renoui has been assessed as Endangered. However, as the North African subpopulations constitute a relatively small proportion of the global population, the overall assessment for the species is Least Concern.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Population

Population
A widespread and common species which is increasing in abundance.

Population Trend
Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Residential, urban, industrial and tourism related developments in coastal areas has reduced the available habitat for this species. However, this decline is more than offset by its expansion in other areas.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is present in several protected areas, but has also been planted extensively within and without its natural range (it is a serious pest in the Cape Region of South Africa).
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Wikipedia

Pinus pinaster

Pinus pinaster, the maritime pine[1][2] or cluster pine,[1] is a pine native to the western and southwestern Mediterranean region.

Background[edit]

P. pinaster is a hard, fast growing pine containing small seeds with large wings. P. pinaster is located in the Mediterranean basin but has been invading South Africa for the last 150 years where it is an invasive species. It favors a Mediterranean climate, which is one that has cool, rainy winters and hot, dry summers.[3] The pine tree species invades large areas and more specifically fynbos vegetation. Fynbos vegetation is a fire-prone shrubland vegetation that is found in the southern and southwest cape of South Africa. It is found in greater abundance close to watercourses.[3] Dispersal, habitat loss, and fecundity are all factors that affect spread rate. The species favors acidic soils with medium to high-density vegetation.[3]

History[edit]

The native area that this species of pinus, Pinus Pinaster, originates from is the Mediterranean Basin, i.e. Northern Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco.[4] P. pinaster is a popular topic in ecology because of its problematic growth and spread in South Africa for the past 150 years after being imported into the region at the end of the 17th century (1685-1693).[4] It was also found spreading in Cape Peninsula by 1772.[4] Towards the end of the 18th century (1780) P. pinaster was widely planted, and at the beginning of the 19th century (1825-1830) P. pinaster was planted commercially as a timber resource and for the forestry industry.[4]

Distribution[edit]

The range extends from Portugal and northern Spain (especially in Galicia) to southern and western France, east to western Italy, and south to northern Morocco, with small outlying populations in Algeria and Malta (possibly introduced by man). It generally occurs at low to moderate altitudes, mostly from sea level to 600 m, but up to 2000 m in the south of its range in Morocco.

Pinus pinaster decoration cones.jpg

Description[edit]

Pinus pinaster is a medium-size tree, reaching 20–35 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.2 m, exceptionally 1.8 m.

The bark is orange-red, thick and deeply fissured at the base of the trunk, somewhat thinner in the upper crown.

The leaves ('needles') are in pairs, very stout (2 mm broad), up to 25 cm long,[5] and bluish-green to distinctly yellowish-green. The maritime pine features the longest and most robust needles of all European pine species.[5]

The cones are conic, 10–20 cm long[5] and 4–6 cm broad at the base when closed, green at first, ripening glossy red-brown when 24 months old. They open slowly over the next few years, or after being heated by a forest fire, to release the seeds, opening to 8–12 cm broad.

The seeds are 8–10 mm long, with a 20–25 mm wing, and are wind-dispersed.

Maritime pine is closely related to Turkish pine, Canary Island pine and Aleppo pine, which all share many features with it. It is a relatively non-variable species, with constant morphology over the entire range.

Uses[edit]

Pinus pinaster is widely planted for timber in its native area, being one of the most important trees in forestry in France, Spain and Portugal. Landes forest in southwest France is the largest man-made maritime pine forest in Europe.

In addition to industrial uses, maritime pine is also a popular ornamental tree, often planted in parks and gardens in areas with warm temperate climates. It has become naturalised in parts of southern England, South Africa and Australia.[6]

It is also used as a source of flavonoids, catechins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids; notably in the patented extract "Pycnogenol". Pycnogenol is marketed as a dietary supplement with claims it can treat many conditions; however it is not effective for treating any chronic health disorder.[7]

Invasiveness[edit]

Result of P. pinaster invasion[edit]

P. pinaster is a successful invasive species in South Africa. One of the results of its invasion in South Africa is a decrease in the biodiversity of the native environment.[4] The increase of extinction rates of the native species is correlated with the introduction of these species to South Africa. Invasive species occupy habitats of native species often forcing them to extinction or endangerment. For example, invasive species have the potential to decrease the diversity of native plants by 50-86% in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa.[8] As discussed above, P. pinaster is a tree species found in shrubland in South Africa. When compared to other environment, shrublands have the largest decline of species richness when invaded by an invasive species (Z=-1.33, p<0.001).[9] Compared to graminoids; trees, annual herbs, and creepers have a larger effect on decline of species richness (Z=-3.78; p<0.001).[9] Lastly, compared to other countries, South Africa had the largest species richness decline when faced with invasive species.[9] South Africa is not home to many insects and diseases that limit the population of P. pinaster back in its native habitat.[4] Not only is there evidence that alien plant invasions decrease biodiversity, but there is also evidence that the location of P. pinaster increases its negative effect on the species richness.

In addition, depending on the regions P.pinaster invades, P. pinaster has the potential to dramatically alter the quantity of water in the environment. If P. pinaster invades an area covered with grasses and shrubs, the water level of the streams in this area would lower significantly because P. pinaster are evergreen trees that take up considerably more water than grasses and shrubs all year around.[10] They deplete run-off in catchment areas and water flow in rivers. This depletes the resources available for other species in the environment. P. pinaster tends to grow rapidly in riparian zones, which are areas with abundant water where trees and plants grow twice as fast and invade. P. pinaster takes advantage of the water available and consequently reduces the amount of water in the area available for other species.[10] The fynbos catchments on the Western Cape of South Africa are a habitat negatively affected by P. pinaster. 23 years after planting the pines there was a 55% decrease in streamflow in this area.[4] Similarly, in KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg there was an 82% reduction in streamflow 20 years after introducing P. pinaster to the area. In the Mpumalanga Province, 6 streams completely dried up 12 years after grasslands were replaced with pines.[4] To reinforce that there is a negative effect from the invasive species P. pinaster, these areas of dense P. pinaster were thinned and the number of trees in the area decreased. As a result, the streamflow in the fynbos catchments of the Western Cape increased by 44%. The streamflow in the Mpumalanga Province increased by 120%.[4] As a result of P. pinaster growth, there is often less understory vegetation for livestock grazing. Once again there was a positive effect when some of the pines were removed and agreeable range grasses were planted. The grazing conditions for the sheep of the area were greatly improved when the P. pinaster plantation was thinned to 300 trees ha-1. The invasion of P. pinaster leads to the decrease of understory vegetation and therefore a decrease in livestock.[11]

Ecological interaction that lead to the current impact on the environment[edit]

P. pinaster is particularly successful in regions with fynbos vegetation because it is adapted to high intensity fires, thus allowing it to outcompete other species that are not as well adapted to high intensity fires. In areas of fire-prone shrubland the cones of P. pinaster will release seeds when in a relatively high temperature environment for germination as a recovery mechanism. This adaptation increases the competitive ability of P. pinaster amongst other species in the fire-prone shrubland.[3] In a 3 year observational study done in Northwestern Spain, P. pinaster showed a naturally high regeneration rate.[12] Observations showed a mean of 25.25 seedlings/m2 within the first year and then slowly decreased the next two years due to intraspecific competition.[12] So not only does P. pinaster compete with other species, they also compete within their own species as well. When the height of P. pinaster increased there was a negative correlation with the number of P. pinaster seedlings, results showed a decrease in P. pinaster seedlings (r=-0.41, p<0.05).[12]

Several other characteristics contribute to their success in the regions they have invaded, including their ability to grow rapidly and to produce small seeds with large wings. Their ability to grow quickly with short juvenile periods allows them to outcompete many native species while their small seeds aids in their dispersal. The small seeds with large wings are beneficial for wind dispersal, which is the key to reaching new areas in regions with fynbos vegetation.[3] Vertebrate seed dispersers are not commonly found in mountain fynbos vegetation, therefore those species that require the aid of vertebrate dispersal would be at a disadvantage in such an environment. For this reason, the small seed, low seed wing loading, and high winds found in mountainous regions all combine to provide a favorable situation for the dispersal of P. pinaster seeds.[3] Without this efficient dispersal strategy, P. pinaster would not have been able to reach and invade areas, such as South Africa, that are suitable for its growth. Its dispersal ability is one of the key factors that have allowed P. pinaster to become such a successful invasive species.[3]

In addition to being an efficient disperser, P. pinaster is known to produce oleoresins, such as oily terpenes or fatty acids, which can inhibit other species within the community from growing.[13] These resins are produced as a defense mechanism against insect predators, such as the large pine weevil. According to an experiment done in Spain, the resin canal density was twice as high in the P. pinaster seedlings attacked by the weevils compared to the unattacked seedlings. Since P. pinaster has the ability to regulate their production of defense mechanisms, it can protect itself from predatory in an energy-efficient manner. The resins make the P. pinaster less vulnerable to damage from insects, but they are only produced in high concentrations when P. pinaster is under attack. In other words, P. pinaster does not waste energy producing resins in safe conditions, so the conserved energy can be used for growth or reproduction. These characteristics enhance the ability of P. pinaster survive and flourish in the areas it invades.[14] Both the traits of P. pinaster and the habitat in South Africa are conducive to the success of P. pinaster in this region of the world.

Biological control options[edit]

Insects and mites that feed on the seeds and cones of P. pinaster can be effective biological control options. An insect or mite that acts as an ideal biological control should have a high reproductive rate and be host-specific, meaning that it preys specifically on P. pinaster. The life cycle of the predator should also match that of its specific host. Two key characteristics the predator should also exhibit are self-limitation and the ability to survive in the presence of a declining prey population.[14] Seed feeding insects are an effective control because they have high reproductive rates and target the seeds without diminishing the positive effect of the plant on the environment. Controlling the spread of P. pinaster seeds in the region is the key to limiting the growth and spread of this species because P. pinaster has the ability to produce a large number of seeds that are capable of dispersing very efficiently.[4] One possible option is Trisetacus, an eriophyid mite. The main advantage to using this mite to control the population of P. Pinaster is its specificity to P. pinaster; it can effectively control the population of P. pinaster by destroying the growing conelets in P. pinaster while limiting its impact to only this species. Another possible option is Pissodes validirostris, a cone-feeding weevil that lays eggs in developing cones. When the larvae hatch, they feed on the growing seed tissue, preventing P. pinaster seeds from forming and dispersing. Although the adults feed on the trees as well, they do not do any damage to the seeds and only feed on the shoots of the tree, so they do not appear to negatively impact the growth of the trees. Different forms of P. validirostris have diverged to become host-specific to different pine trees. The type of P. validirostris that originated from Portugal appears to have specialized to P. pinaster; therefore, this insect may be used in the future to control the spread of P. pinaster in South Africa.[15] The uncertainties regarding the host-specificity of different types of P. validirostris, however, require more research to be completed before the introduction of the weevils into South Africa. An introduction of a species that is not host-specific to P. pinaster can lead to detrimental effects on both the environment and commercial industries that are dependent on certain tree species. Two other biological control possibilities include the pyralid moth species Dioryctria mendasella and D. mitatella, but these species attack the vegetative tissue instead of just the seeds of P. pinaster, harming the plant itself.[4] As of now, the eriophyid mite and cone-feeding weevil seem to hold the most potential to controlling the spread of P. pinaster in the regions it has invaded because they destroy the reproductive structures of the target invasive species.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Pinus pinaster Aiton". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  2. ^ http://www.wood-database.com/lumber-identification/softwoods/maritime-pine/
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Richardson, M (1990). Assessing the risk of invasive success in Pinus and Banksia in South African mountain fynbos [Journal of Vegetation Science] (1st ed.). pp. 629–642. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Moran, V.C. (2000). Biological Control of Alien, Invasive Pine Trees (Pinus species) in South Africa [X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds]. pp. 941–953. 
  5. ^ a b c Rushforth, Keith (1986) [1980]. Bäume [Pocket Guide to Trees] (in German) (2nd ed.). Bern: Hallwag AG. p. 63. ISBN 3-444-70130-6. 
  6. ^ "Pinus pinaster". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  7. ^ Schoonees, A; Visser, J; Musekiwa, A; Volmink, J (2012). "Pycnogenol® (extract of French maritime pine bark) for the treatment of chronic disorders® for the treatment of chronic disorders". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008294.pub4. 
  8. ^ Higgins, S (1999). Predicting the Landscape-Scale Distribution of Alien Plants and Their Threat to Plant Diversity [Conservation Biology]. pp. 303–313. 
  9. ^ a b c Gaertner, M (2009). Impacts of alien plant invasions on species richness in Mediterranean-type ecosystems: a meta-analysis [Progress in Physical Geography] (33 ed.). pp. 319–338. 
  10. ^ a b Carbon, B.A. (1982). Deep drainage and water use of forests and pastures grown on deep sands in a Mediterranean environment [Journal of Hydrology]. pp. 53–63. 
  11. ^ Papanastasis, V. (1995). Effects of thinning, fertilisation and sheep grazing on the understory vegetarion of Pinus pinaster plantations [School of Forestry and Natural Environment]. pp. 181–189. 
  12. ^ a b c Calvo, L (2008). Post-fire natural regeneration of a Pinus pinaster forest in NW Spain [Plant Ecology] 197. pp. 81–90. 
  13. ^ Calvo, L (2003). Regeneration after wildfire in communities dominated by Pinus pinaster, an obligate seeder, and in others dominated by Quercus pyrenaica, typical resprouter [Forest Ecology and Management] 184. pp. 209–223. 
  14. ^ a b Krebs, C (2009). Ecology [Pearson]. 
  15. ^ Hoffmann, J (2011). Prospects for the biological control of invasive Pinus species (Pinaceae) in South Africa [African Entomology]. pp. 393–401. 

Further reading[edit]

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