Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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States or Provinces

(key to state/province abbreviations)
United States
TX

Mexico
Chih. Coah. Jal. Mich. Mor. N.L. Oax. Pue. Son. Tamps.
Zac.

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [9]:

13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
  • 9. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

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Drooping juniper occurs in the United States only in the Chisos Mountains of Big Bend National Park in Brewster County, Texas [14,15,20,21,33,37,44]. The major portion of its range is in Mexico and extends from Chihuahua and northeastern Sonora south to Oaxaca and Guatemala [14,27,27,33,37,38,44,48]. Drooping juniper is the most common juniper in Mexico [33]. Juniperus flaccida var. flaccida occurs from Big Bend National Park south into Coahuila and Oaxaca and westward to Sonora and Jalisco [3,15,47,48]. Juniperus flaccida var. martinezii is found only in Jalisco [14]. Juniperus flaccida var. poblana occurs from Jalisco eastward to Oaxaca [3,47]. The U.S. Geological Survey provides a distributional map of drooping juniper and its infrataxa.
  • 3. Adams, Robert P.; Zanoni, Thomas A.; Hogge, Lawrence. 1984. The volatile leaf oils of Juniperus flaccida var. flaccida and var. poblana. Journal of Natural Products. 47(6): 1064-1065. [65726]
  • 14. Farjon, Alijos. 1998. World checklist and bibliography of conifers. 2nd ed. Kew, England: The Royal Botanic Gardens. 309 p. [61059]
  • 20. Jones, Stanley D.; Wipff, Joseph K.; Montgomery, Paul M. 1997. Vascular plants of Texas. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 404 p. [28762]
  • 27. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]
  • 33. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees and shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas: Including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
  • 37. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 38. Standley, P. C. 1924. Trees and shrubs of Mexico. Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Press. 23: 849-1312. [20916]
  • 44. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 47. Zanoni, Thomas A.; Adams, Robert P. 1975. The genus Juniperus (Cupressaceae) in Mexico and Guatemala: numerical and morphological analysis. Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de Mexico. 35: 69-91. [20641]
  • 48. Zanoni, Thomas A.; Adams, Robert P. 1976. The genus Juniperus in Mexico and Guatemala: numerical and chemosystematic analysis. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 4: 147-158. [19991]
  • 15. Flora of North America Association. 2007. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA. [36990]
  • 21. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. In: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: shrub, tree

This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. An identification key is available [44].

Drooping juniper is a native small tree or large shrub that is slow growing and long-lived [42]. Height at maturity usually ranges from 25 to 30 feet (7.6-9.1 m) [37,44]. The national champion tree occurs in Juniper Canyon and is 55 feet (17 m) tall with a crown spread of 35 feet (11 m) and a circumference of 8.5 feet (2.5 m) [4]. Juniperus flaccida var. flaccida reaches a maximum height of 39 feet (12 m) [15]. The most conspicuous character of drooping juniper is its pendant branchlets [33,44]. Young drooping juniper trees usually have a narrow rounded crown. The bark is deeply furrowed and shreds into long strips [44]. The globose, berrylike cone is from 0.25 to 0.5 inch (0.63-1.3 cm) in diameter [44]. Each drooping juniper cone contains from 4 to 12 seeds (usually 6-8) that are 0.12 to 0.25 inch long [33,38,44]. The cones of J. f. var. flaccida contain from 4 to 13 (usually 6-10) seeds [15]. Drooping juniper cones collected by Adams [2] in the Chisos Mountains averaged 8.35 seeds/cone.

Toxicity: The leaves of J. f. var. flaccida and J. f. var. poblana contain volatile oils [1,3]. The composition of volatile leaf oils in both varieties is available [3].

  • 1. Adams, R. P. 1972. Chemosystematic and numerical studies of natural populations of Juniperus pinchotii Sudw. Taxon. 21(4): 407-427. [20001]
  • 2. Adams, Robert P. 1973. Reevaluation of the biological status of Juniperus deppeana var. sperryi Correll. Brittonia. 25(3): 284-289. [5789]
  • 3. Adams, Robert P.; Zanoni, Thomas A.; Hogge, Lawrence. 1984. The volatile leaf oils of Juniperus flaccida var. flaccida and var. poblana. Journal of Natural Products. 47(6): 1064-1065. [65726]
  • 33. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees and shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas: Including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
  • 37. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 38. Standley, P. C. 1924. Trees and shrubs of Mexico. Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Press. 23: 849-1312. [20916]
  • 42. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Misc. Publ. No. 303. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 44. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 4. American Forests. 2007. Drooping juniper: Juniperus flaccida. In: National register of big trees, [Online]. Available: http://www.americanforests.org/resources/bigtrees/ [2007, April 24]. [66537]
  • 15. Flora of North America Association. 2007. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA. [36990]

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Physical Description

Tree, Evergreen, Dioecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark shaggy or peeling, Young shoots in flat sprays, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds not resinous, Leaves scale-like, Whip leaves present, Leaves of two kinds, Leaves opposite, Leaves whorled, Non-needle-like leaf margins entire, Leaf apex acute, Leaf apex obtuse, Leaves < 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves not blue-green, Scale leaves without raised glands, Scale leaf glands not ruptured, Scale leaves overlapping, Whip leaf margins entire under magnification, Twigs glabrous, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Aril leathery, Aril soft, Berry-like cones pink, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds tan, Seeds brown, Seeds wingless.
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Stephen C. Meyers

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Varieties 3 (1 in the flora): North America, Mexico.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Type Information

Syntype for Juniperus flaccida Schltdl.
Catalog Number: US 1205343
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. Ehrenberg
Locality: E of Monserrat, Mexico, Central America
  • Syntype: Schlechter, F. R. R. 1838. Linnaea. 12: 495.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Juniperus flaccida occurs in montane Pinyon-Juniper woodland, pine-oak forest and woodland, and oak woodland, with Pinus cembroides, Pinus spp., Juniperus deppeana, J. saltillensis, Quercus spp., Fraxinus, Arbutus, mimosoid legumes, Yucca spp., etc., on limestone or other rocks including siliceous (granitic) rocks. The altitudinal range is from 800 m to 2,600 m a.s.l.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: shrub, tree

In the Chisos Mountains, drooping juniper occurs in moist woodlands, pine-oak
(Pinus-Quercus ssp.) woodlands, and oak scrub.
Species other than those listed above with which drooping juniper occurs with include
the tree species Mexican pinyon (P. cembroides), Grave's oak (Q. gravesii), gray
oak (Q. grisea), Emory oak (Q. emoryi), alligator juniper (J.
deppeana), Texas madrone (Arbutus xalapensis), and bigtooth maple
(Acer grandidentatum); the shrub species Wright silktassel (Garrya wrightii),
mountain sage (Salvia regla), fragrant sumac (Rhus
aromatica), Harvard's century plant (Agave havardiana), foothill beargrass (Nolina
erumpens), dwarf oak (Q. intricata), featherplume (Dalea formosa),
and damianita (Chrysactinia mexicana); and the grass species pinyon ricegrass (Piptochaetium
fimbriatum), Mediterranean lovegrass (Eragrostis
barrelieri), bullgrass (Muhlenberis emersleyi), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula),
and Big Bend bluegrass (Poa strictiramea) [1,10,29,32,45].
  • 1. Adams, R. P. 1972. Chemosystematic and numerical studies of natural populations of Juniperus pinchotii Sudw. Taxon. 21(4): 407-427. [20001]
  • 10. Dick-Peddie, William A.; Alberico, Michael S. 1977. Fire ecology study of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas: Phase I. CDRI Contribution No. 35. Alpine, TX: The Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute. 47 p. [5002]
  • 32. Plumb, Gregory A. 1992. Vegetation classification of Big Bend National Park, Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 44(4): 375-387. [20091]
  • 45. Wauer, Roland H. 1971. Ecological distribution of birds of the Chisos Mountains, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 16(1): 1-29. [24969]
  • 29. Moir, William H. 1980. Forest and woodland vegetation monitoring, Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas: Baseline 1978. Contribution No. 83. [Fort Davis, TX]: Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute. 63 p. [20380]

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Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the term: cover

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [36]:



504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland
  • 36. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

SAF COVER TYPES [13]:




239 Pinyon-juniper

241 Western live oak
  • 13. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

KUCHLER [24] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:



K031 Oak-juniper woodland

K054 Grama-tobosa prairie
  • 24. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]

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Habitat characteristics

Drooping juniper occurs on dry, rocky or sandy, igneous soils in canyons, benches, hillsides, and ridges [12,32,33,37,38]. It preferentially grows on well-drained sites [42].

Climate: Where drooping juniper grows in the Chisos Mountains, precipitation ranges from 8.7 to 27 inches (220-680 mm), with most falling from May to October [26,45]. It rarely freezes, and summer temperatures routinely exceed 100 °F (40 °C) [26].

Elevation: In the Chisos Mountains, drooping juniper generally is found above 5,000 feet (2,000 m) [37]. In Mexico, it occurs from 4,000 to 8,000 feet (1,000-2,000 m) [3,44]. The elevational range of J. f. var. flaccida in Texas and Mexico is 3,000 to 9,500 feet (900-2,900 m) [15].

  • 3. Adams, Robert P.; Zanoni, Thomas A.; Hogge, Lawrence. 1984. The volatile leaf oils of Juniperus flaccida var. flaccida and var. poblana. Journal of Natural Products. 47(6): 1064-1065. [65726]
  • 12. Elias, Thomas S. 1980. The complete trees of North America: field guide and natural history. New York: Times Mirror Magazines, Inc. 948 p. [21987]
  • 26. Leopold, Bruce D.; Krausman, Paul R. 2002. Plant recovery and deer use in the Chisos Mountains, Texas, following wildfire. Proceedings, Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 56: 352-364. [61559]
  • 32. Plumb, Gregory A. 1992. Vegetation classification of Big Bend National Park, Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 44(4): 375-387. [20091]
  • 33. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees and shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas: Including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
  • 37. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 38. Standley, P. C. 1924. Trees and shrubs of Mexico. Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Press. 23: 849-1312. [20916]
  • 42. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Misc. Publ. No. 303. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 44. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 45. Wauer, Roland H. 1971. Ecological distribution of birds of the Chisos Mountains, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 16(1): 1-29. [24969]
  • 15. Flora of North America Association. 2007. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA. [36990]

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

ECOSYSTEMS [17]:

FRES35 Pinyon-juniper

FRES40 Desert grasslands
  • 17. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

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General Ecology

Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the terms: fire severity, severity

Specific information on the relationship of fire severity and damage to drooping juniper is lacking. Drooping juniper has shreddy bark and volatile leaf oils which probably render it highly flammable. It is probably easily killed by fire.

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: adventitious, tree

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [39]:
Tree without adventitious bud/root crown
  • 39. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. FEIS postfire regeneration workshop--April 12: Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20090]

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: fire frequency, fire interval, frequency, mean fire interval

Fire adaptations: Specific information on the fire ecology of drooping juniper is lacking. Other junipers (Juniperus spp.) are highly vulnerable to fire, and usually occur in large numbers only in fire refugia.

FIRE REGIMES: Fire is a common occurrence where drooping juniper occurs in the Chisos Mountains. Dick-Peddie and Alberico [10] reported that lightning fires are probably highly localized, and are often confined to single trees. Downed woody fuels are usually scarce, and continuous fine fuels consist of herbs [10]. Using fire scar data, Moir [30] assessed that fire frequency in the Chisos Mountains ranged from 0.9 to 2.0 fires/century. The research conducted by Moir suggests a mean fire interval for the Chisos Mountains of approximately 70 years [29,30]. Research conducted by Leopold and Krausman [26] in the Chisos Mountains showed a mean fire interval of 60 years.

The following table provides fire-return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where drooping juniper is important. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
desert grasslands Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica <35 to <100
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. <35 [31]
Mexican pinyon Pinus cembroides 20-70 [30,40]
oak-juniper woodland (Southwest) Quercus-Juniperus spp. <35 to <200 [31]
  • 10. Dick-Peddie, William A.; Alberico, Michael S. 1977. Fire ecology study of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas: Phase I. CDRI Contribution No. 35. Alpine, TX: The Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute. 47 p. [5002]
  • 26. Leopold, Bruce D.; Krausman, Paul R. 2002. Plant recovery and deer use in the Chisos Mountains, Texas, following wildfire. Proceedings, Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 56: 352-364. [61559]
  • 30. Moir, William H. 1982. A fire history of the High Chisos, Big Bend National Park, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 27(1): 87-98. [5916]
  • 31. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
  • 40. Swetnam, Thomas W.; Baisan, Christopher H.; Brown, Peter M.; Caprio, Anthony C. 1989. Fire history of Rhyolite Canyon, Chiricahua National Monument. Tech. Rep. No. 32. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, School of Renewable Natural Resources; Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. 47 p. [10573]
  • 29. Moir, William H. 1980. Forest and woodland vegetation monitoring, Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas: Baseline 1978. Contribution No. 83. [Fort Davis, TX]: Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute. 63 p. [20380]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: succession

At the time of this review (2007), there is no information on the successional status of drooping juniper. Information pertaining to drooping juniper succession is much needed.

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: dioecious

Large seed crops are produced every 2 to 3 years, with light crops produced in intervening years [12]. The widespread distribution of drooping juniper in Mexico is probably partly due to the number of seeds/cone, which is "large" when compared to other junipers [48].

Pollination: Drooping juniper is pollinated by the wind.

Breeding system: Drooping juniper is dioecious [42,43,44].

Seed dispersal: Drooping juniper seeds are dispersed by birds and animals [48].

At the time of this review (2007) there is no information relating to drooping juniper seed banking, production, or germination; seedling establishment or growth; or vegetative regeneration. Research on drooping juniper reproduction is sorely needed.

  • 12. Elias, Thomas S. 1980. The complete trees of North America: field guide and natural history. New York: Times Mirror Magazines, Inc. 948 p. [21987]
  • 42. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Misc. Publ. No. 303. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 43. van Melle, P. J. 1952. Juniperus texensis sp. nov. -- West-Texas juniper in relation to J. monosperma, J. ashei et al. Phytologia. 4: 26-35. [21859]
  • 44. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 48. Zanoni, Thomas A.; Adams, Robert P. 1976. The genus Juniperus in Mexico and Guatemala: numerical and chemosystematic analysis. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 4: 147-158. [19991]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

RAUNKIAER [34] LIFE FORM:
Phanerophyte
  • 34. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

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Life Form

More info for the terms: shrub, tree

Tree-shrub

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Fire Management Considerations

Information pertaining to managing drooping juniper with fire is lacking. Research is needed in all aspects of fire ecology and management of dropping juniper.

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Plant Response to Fire

Information pertaining to drooping juniper's response to fire is lacking. Research on drooping juniper's response to fire is needed.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Some researchers report that drooping juniper cones mature in September or October of their second year [37,42,44] and are persistent [42]. However, Flora of North America [15] reports a 1-year ripening period for drooping juniper.
  • 37. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 42. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Misc. Publ. No. 303. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 44. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 15. Flora of North America Association. 2007. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA. [36990]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Juniperus flaccida

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Juniperus flaccida

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Adams, R & Thomas, P.

Contributor/s

Justification

This is one of the most widespread of the junipers, ranging almost throughout Mexico and just into Texas across the Rio Grande at Big Bend National Park.

Only the variety martinezii is considered to be under threat and is listed as Vulnerable. The other varieties (flaccida and poblana) are Least Concern.
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Information on state-level protected status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.

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Population

Population
Widespread and locally common.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
No specific threats have been identified for this species.
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Source: IUCN

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is present in several protected areas (in the US in Big Bend National Park).
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Source: IUCN

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Management considerations

Parasites:
Drooping juniper is a host species to juniper mistletoe (Phoradendron juniperinum)
and P. saltillense [18].
  • 18. Geils, B. W.; Wiens, D.; Hawksworth, F. G. 2002. Phoradendron in Mexico and the United States. In: Geils, Brian W.; Cibrian Tovar, Jose; Moody, Benjamin, tech. coords. Mistletoes of North American conifers. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-98. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 19-28. [42523]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Other uses and values

Drooping juniper is planted as an ornamental outside of its native range in the United States and in southern Europe and northern Africa [37,44].

Wood Products: Drooping juniper wood is durable and is used locally for fenceposts [42,44].

  • 37. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 42. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Misc. Publ. No. 303. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 44. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: cover

Very little is known about the importance of drooping juniper to livestock and wildlife. birds and mammals consume drooping juniper's fleshy cones [45,48]. Arizona gray foxes in the Sierra Madres of Chihuahua, Mexico, also eat the cones [23].

Palatability/nutritional value: No information is available on this topic.

Cover value: No information is available on this topic.

  • 45. Wauer, Roland H. 1971. Ecological distribution of birds of the Chisos Mountains, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist. 16(1): 1-29. [24969]
  • 48. Zanoni, Thomas A.; Adams, Robert P. 1976. The genus Juniperus in Mexico and Guatemala: numerical and chemosystematic analysis. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 4: 147-158. [19991]
  • 23. Knobloch, Irving W. 1942. Notes on a collection of mammals from the Sierra Madres of Chihuahua, Mexico. Journal of Mammology. 23(3): 297-298. [65728]

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Wikipedia

Juniperus flaccida

Juniperus flaccida (Weeping Juniper or Mexican Juniper; Native American names include tláscal) is a large shrub or small tree reaching 5-10 m (rarely to 15 m) tall. It is native to central and northern Mexico (from Oaxaca northward) and the extreme southwest of Texas, United States (Brewster County). It grows at moderate altitudes of 800-2,600 m, on dry soils.

The bark is brown, with stringy vertical fissuring. The shoots are strongly pendulous, 1-1.2 mm diameter, and often borne in flattened sprays (the only juniper commonly showing this character). The leaves are arranged in opposite decussate pairs; the adult leaves are scale-like, 2-4 mm long (to 7 mm on lead shoots) and 1-1.5 mm broad. The juvenile leaves (on young seedlings only) are needle-like, 5-10 mm long. The cones are berry-like, 8-20 mm in diameter, green maturing brown, and contain 6-12 seeds (the most seeds per cone of any juniper); they are mature in about 18 months. The male cones are 3-5 mm long, and shed their pollen in spring. It is largely dioecious, producing cones of only one sex on each tree.

There are three varieties, not accepted as distinct by all authorities:

  • Juniperus flaccida var. flaccida. Throughout the range of the species. Cones 9-15 mm diameter, with inconspicuous scale margins.
  • Juniperus flaccida var. martinezii. Restricted to a small area in Jalisco. Cones 6-8 mm diameter, with inconspicuous scale margins.
  • Juniperus flaccida var. poblana. Throughout the southern two thirds of the range of the species. Cones 12-20 mm diameter, with conspicuous scale margins.

References and external links[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The scientific name of drooping juniper is Juniperus flaccida
Schlecht. (Cupressaceae) [14,15,20,21,33,37]. There are 3 recognized varieties:

Juniperus flaccida var. flaccida Schlecht. [14,15]

Juniperus flaccida var. martinezii (Pérez de la Rosa) Silba

Juniperus flaccida var. poblana Martinez [14]
  • 14. Farjon, Alijos. 1998. World checklist and bibliography of conifers. 2nd ed. Kew, England: The Royal Botanic Gardens. 309 p. [61059]
  • 20. Jones, Stanley D.; Wipff, Joseph K.; Montgomery, Paul M. 1997. Vascular plants of Texas. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 404 p. [28762]
  • 33. Powell, A. Michael. 1988. Trees and shrubs of Trans-Pecos Texas: Including Big Bend and Guadalupe Mountains National Parks. Big Bend National Park, TX: Big Bend Natural History Association. 536 p. [6130]
  • 37. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 15. Flora of North America Association. 2007. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA. [36990]
  • 21. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. In: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]

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Synonyms

Juniperus flaccida var. gigantea (Roezl) Gaussen

Juniperus gigantea Roezl p.p.

Juniperus gracilis Endl. [21]
  • 21. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. In: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]

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Common Names

drooping juniper

Mexican drooping juniper

weeping juniper

weeping cedar

drooping cedar

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