Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Tree, Evergreen, Monoecious, Habit erect, Trees without or rarely having knees, Tree with bark rough or scaly, Young shoots 3-dimensional, Buds resinous, Leaves needle-like, Leaves alternate, Needle-like leaf margins finely serrulate (use magnification or slide your finger along the leaf), Leaf apex acute, Leaves > 5 cm long, Leaves < 10 cm long, Leaves yellow-green above, Leaves yellow-green below, Leaves not blue-green, Needle-like leaves triangular, Needle-like leaves twisted, Needle-like leaf habit erect, Needle-like leaves per fascicle mostly 5, Needle-like leaf sheath persistent, Twigs glabrous, Twigs viscid, Twigs not viscid, Twigs without peg-like projections or large fascicles after needles fall, Berry-like cones orange, Woody seed cones > 5 cm long, Seed cones bearing a scarlike umbo, Umbo with obvious prickle, Bracts of seed cone included, Seeds brown, Seeds yellow, Seeds winged, Seeds unequally winged, Seed wings prominent, Seed wings equal to or broader than body.
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Stephen C. Meyers

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Pinus arizonica forms pure stands or is more commonly mixed with Quercus sideroxyla and other species, other pines, e.g. Pinus engelmannii, P. teocote, P. durangensis, P. strobiformis, and occasionally Juniperus flaccida at lower or J. deppeana at higher altitudes. It grows on various substrates, but the best stands are in valleys and on mesas with deep soil, in moderately dry to mesic forest with light winter frost occurring, at altitudes from (1,300-)2,000-2,700(-3,000) m a.s.l. Annual precipitation is low to moderate, from 700 mm to 900 mm, mostly falling during the winter months.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Source: IUCN

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pinus arizonica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus arizonica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Farjon, A.

Reviewer/s
Thomas, P. & Perez de la Rosa, J.

Contributor/s

Justification

This species is widespread and common in the Sierra Madre Occidental and on the whole is not in decline despite exploitation for timber. Although two varieties (var. stormiae and var. cooperi) are more restricted and in decline and hence assessed separately, the typical variety makes up the majority of the population so that at the species level, Pinus arizonica is considered Least Concern. The typical variety is not assessed separately, but would be Least Concern like the species.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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Population

Population
Although this species has been exploited throughout most of its range, it is uncertain if there has been an overall decline in its population size or area of occupancy. As such, the population trend is unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Pinus arizonica is an important constituent of the pine and pine-oak forests of northern Mexico, especially in the Sierra Madre Occidental. As such it is heavily exploited as a timber tree in much of its range, especially in the more accessible regions, and stands with large trees in these localities are now rare. According to Perry (1991) logging has “left only small scattered populations in the more accessible regions…sizable stands can still be found in…isolated and inaccessible valleys.” However, there is no evidence that either its overall range or area of occupancy have declined. There is insufficient information to establish if the number of mature individuals has actually declined. Although there will be areas where large trees have gone, but regeneration will likely have replaced these. As a result, under the Red List Criteria this species is not threatened with extinction. .
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is present in some protected areas, both in Mexico and in the USA.
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Wikipedia

Pinus arizonica

Pinus arizonica, commonly known as the Arizona pine, is a medium-sized pine in northern Mexico, southeast Arizona, southwest New Mexico, and western Texas in the United States. It is a tree growing to 25–35 m tall, with a trunk diameter of up 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in). The needles are in bundles of 3, 4, or 5, with 5-needle fascicles being the most prevalent. This variability may be a sign of hybridization with the closely related Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa). The cones are single, paired, or in whorls of three, and 5–11 cm long.

Taxonomy[edit]

The Arizona pine had been thought to be a variant of Ponderosa pine by some botanists, but is now recognized as a distinct species by most authorities.

P. arizonica forest, Mt. Lemmon, AZ

Two varieties are described, possibly better treated as distinct species; see Ponderosa Pine for a table of characters:

Another related pine, Cooper's Pine (Pinus cooperi) is also treated as a variety of Arizona Pine by some authors, as Pinus arizonica var. cooperi, but other authors regard this as a distinct species, more closely related to Hartweg's Pine (Pinus hartwegii).

Uses[edit]

This pine is a source of construction timber, and is heavily harvested for firewood. Extensive cutting has reduced the formerly widespread Arizona Pine forests, particularly in Mexico.

References[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Many botanists and taxonomists consider P. ARIZONICA to be a variety of P. PONDEROSA. They are closely related and quite similar, but number of leaves, resin canals and cone scales prickles differenciate them (Perry, 1991). Kartesz (1994 checklist) maintains this as a distinct species, with two varieties (vars. arizonica and stormiae). FNA (1993) considers it instead a variety of Pinus ponderosa, and does not mention var. stormiae.

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